Towards a Tiered or Differentiated Approach to Protection of Traditional Knowledge (TK) and Traditional Cultural Expressions (TCEs) in Relation to the Intellectual Property System

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dc.contributor.author Oguamanam, Chidi
dc.date.accessioned 2019-06-27T23:16:47Z
dc.date.available 2019-06-27T23:16:47Z
dc.date.issued 2019-06-28
dc.identifier.citation Oguamanam, C. (2019). Towards a tiered or differentiated approach to protection of traditional knowledge (TK) and traditional cultural expressions (TCEs) in relation to the intellectual property system. The African Journal of Information and Communication (AJIC), 23, 1–24. https://doi.org/10.23962/10539/27533 en_ZA
dc.identifier.issn 2077-7213 (online version)
dc.identifier.issn 2077-7205 (print version)
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/10539/27533
dc.identifier.uri https://doi.org/10.23962/10539/27533
dc.description.abstract The World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) has, for nearly two decades, engaged in formulating the nature and content of a text-based legal instrument or instruments for the effective protection of genetic resources (GRs), traditional knowledge (TK), and traditional cultural expressions (TCEs, also known as folklore) within or relating to the international intellectual property (IP) system. This task has been the job of WIPO’s Intergovernmental Committee on Intellectual Property and Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Folklore (IGC), established in 2000. In this article, I explore the context and rationales for, and evolution of, one of the IGC’s evolving contributions: development of a tiered or differentiated approach to the protection of TK and TCEs. The article discusses and analyses the empirical ramifications and challenges of the tiered approach—alternatively referred to as differentiated approach—with reference to examples of forms of TK and TCE in Africa, North America and Australia. I conclude that the approach is a work in progress, still evolving, which provides a useful broad policy framework at the international level while, at the same time, its details are contingent on many considerations better addressed at national and local levels. en_ZA
dc.language.iso en en_ZA
dc.publisher LINK Centre, University of the Witwatersrand (Wits), Johannesburg en_ZA
dc.subject Indigenous Peoples and local communities (IPLCs), genetic resources (GRs), traditional knowledge (TK), traditional cultural expressions (TCEs), tiered or differentiated approach, intellectual property (IP), World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO), Intergovernmental Committee on Intellectual Property and Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Folklore (IGC) en_ZA
dc.title Towards a Tiered or Differentiated Approach to Protection of Traditional Knowledge (TK) and Traditional Cultural Expressions (TCEs) in Relation to the Intellectual Property System en_ZA
dc.type Article en_ZA
dc.journal.title The African Journal of Information and Communication (AJIC) en_ZA
dc.description.librarian CA2019 en_ZA
dc.citation.doi https://doi.org/10.23962/10539/27533 en_ZA
dc.citation.epage 24 en_ZA
dc.citation.issue 23 en_ZA
dc.citation.spage 1 en_ZA
dc.funder Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI) International Law Research Program (ILRP) en_ZA
dc.orcid.id https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4301-9388 en_ZA
dc.journal.link https://www.wits.ac.za/linkcentre/ajic en_ZA


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  • AJIC Issue 23, 2019
    Articles on regulation of customer data protection in South Africa; a model for a cybersecurity resilience maturity measurement (CRMM) framework; a proposed “agricultural data commons”; a tiered or differentiated approach to intellectual property treatment of traditional knowledge (TK) and traditional cultural expressions (TCEs); treatment of Kenya’s ISPs under the Kenya Copyright (Amendment) Bill, 2017; and discursive constructions in Nigeria’s ASUU-FGN labour conflict.

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