Browsing MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt) by Issue Date
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ItemValidation of Oxford Cognitive Screen: Executive Function(OCS-EF), a tablet-based executive function assessmenttool amongst adolescent females in rural South Africa(Wiley Online, 2021) Rowe, Kirsten; Duta, MihaelaShort, reliable, easily administered executive function (EF) assessment tools are needed to measure EF in low- andmiddle-income countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa given the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus(HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorder. We administered Oxford Cognitive Screen — Executive Function (OCS-EF)to 932 rural South African females (mean age 19.7 years). ItemAssociations of father and adult male presence with first pregnancy and HIV infection: Longitudinal evidence from adolescent girls and young women in rural South Africa (HPTN 068)(Springer, 2021-01) Albert, Lisa M; Edwards, Jess; Pence, Brian; Hills, Susan; Kahn, Kathleen; Gómez‑Olivé, F. Xavier; Wagner, Ryan G; Twine, Rhian; Pettifor, AudreyThis study, a secondary analysis of the HPTN 068 randomized control trial, aimed to quantify the association of father and male presence with HIV incidence and first pregnancy among 2533 school-going adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) in rural South Africa participating in the trial between March 2011 and April 2017. Participants’ ages ranged from 13–20 years at study enrollment and 17–25 at the post-intervention visit. HIV and pregnancy incidence rates were calculated for each level of the exposure variables using Poisson regression, adjusted for age using restricted quadratic spline variables, and, in the case of pregnancy, also adjusted for whether the household received a social grant. Our study found that AGYW whose fathers were deceased and adult males were absent from the household were most at risk for incidence of first pregnancy and HIV (pregnancy: aIRR = 1.30, Wald 95% CI 1.05, 1.61, Wald chi-square p = 0.016; HIV: aIRR = 1.27, Wald 95% CI 0.84, 1.91, Wald chi-square p = 0.263) as compared to AGYW whose biological fathers resided with them. For AGYW whose fathers were deceased, having other adult males present as household members seemed to attenuate the incidence (pregnancy: aIRR = 0.92, Wald 95% CI 0.74, 1.15, Wald chi-square p = 0.462; HIV: aIRR = 0.90, Wald 95% CI 0.58, 1.39, Wald chi-square p = 0.623) such that it was similar, and therefore not statistically significantly different, to AGYW whose fathers were present in the household. ItemThe global cost of epilepsy: A systematic review and extropolation(Wiley Online LIbrary, 2022-02-22) Begley, Charles; Wagner, Ryan G; Abraham, Annette; Beghi, Ettore; Newton, Charles; Kwon, Churl-Su; Labiner, David; Winkler, Andrea S"Objective Global action for epilepsy requires information on the cost of epilepsy, which is currently unknown for most countries and regions of the world. To address this knowledge gap, the International League Against Epilepsy Commission on Epidemiology formed the Global Cost of Epilepsy Task Force. Methods We completed a systematic search of the epilepsy cost-of-illness literature and identified studies that provided a comprehensive set of direct health care and/or indirect costs, followed standard methods of case identification and cost estimation, and used data on a representative population or subpopulation of people with epilepsy. Country-specific costs per person with epilepsy were extracted and adjusted to generate an average cost per person in 2019 US dollars. For countries with no cost data, estimates were imputed based on average costs per person of similar income countries with data. Per person costs for each country were then applied to data on the prevalence of epilepsy from the Global Burden of Disease collaboration adjusted for the treatment gap. Results One hundred one cost-of-illness studies were included in the direct health care cost database, 74 from North America or Western Europe. Thirteen studies were used in the indirect cost database, eight from North America or Western Europe. The average annual cost per person with epilepsy in 2019 ranged from $204 in low-income countries to $11 432 in high-income countries based on this highly skewed database. The total cost of epilepsy, applying per person costs to the estimated 52.51 million people in the world with epilepsy and adjusting for the treatment gap, was $119.27 billion. Significance Based on a summary and extrapolations of this limited database, the global cost of epilepsy is substantial and highly concentrated in countries with well-developed health care systems, higher wages and income, limited treatment gaps, and a relatively small percentage of the epilepsy population."