2015 Honours Reports
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- ItemThe Decentralization Of The South African Planning System Through SPLUMA: The Gert Sibande District Municipality experience.(University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 2015) Nkosi, PhiwokuhleThis research report aims to assess the decentralization of spatial planning and land use management system in South Africa through the Spatial Planning and Land Use Management Act (SPLUMA) (2013). The Constitution of South Africa adopts a decentralized governance system. However, planning legislation has been slow in creating a planning and land use system consistent with this Constitutional allocation of functions. This, coupled with the non-existence of definitions for the scope of the functional areas contained in the schedules, has created a complex land use management system riddled with challenges associated with undefined functional areas. Realizing the need for change in planning legislation, and on the basis of the Green Paper on Development and Planning (1999), the Ministry of Agriculture and Land Affairs formulated the White Paper on Planning and Land Use Management (2001) which identified the need for the Minister to formulate legislation to define the roles of the different spheres of government in planning and land use management. This research is accordingly concerned with the extent to which SPLUMA addresses some of the key conditions for the successful decentralization of the planning and land use function. The key conditions that must prevail in the decentralization process are identified as follows: constitutional security; jurisdictional scope; intergovernmental relations; administrative authority; legislative authority and institutional capacity. SPLUMA and the implementation process in Gert Sibande District Municipality are therefore assessed against these key conditions, and recommendations are made to inform land use management in the Gert Sibande District Municipality and the rest of South Africa.
- ItemThe Feasibility of Bicycling in Moving Away from the Automobile-Centric City: The Case of Johannesburg(University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 2015) Lekgothoane, Dineo“In the 20th century, as motorization progressed, cities poured most of their investment into roads, to accommodate motorized traffic” (Godefrooijet al, 2009, p7). Automobile dependence has risen since then; contributing to problems associated with declining city centres, increases in air pollution, traffic noise and road accidents (Greene and Wegener, 1997). Urban planners and city managers, together with politicians, are now faced with the task of reconstructing South African cities that carry the legacy of apartheid urban planning and development (Donaldson, 2001). These cities remain fragmented, and hence they continue to support a huge reliance on private car ownership. The research deems automobile dependence as being highly unsustainable, and hence the study begins to seek alternatives. The bicycle therefore gains recognition as one of the most sustainable modes of travel. This paper seeks to delve into the feasibility of instigating a bicycling initiative in an automobile-centric city of Johannesburg. That is, while the bicycle is widely accepted as a crucial part of any urban transport strategy (GPSM, 2015), it lies within the interests of this research to weigh the pros and cons of successfully converting Johannesburg into a bicycle-friendly city. Since the notion of sustainability forms the core of transportation policy, practice and implementation (Kamau, 2007), the study locates bicycling in the broader literature of sustainability and sustainable development. Part of the findings of the research incorporates the idea that for a bicycling initiative to be feasible in an urban setting a) there has to be a society-wide support (Wittink, 2009), and b) it must be integrated with public transport so as to allow bicyclists to have seamless journeys.
- ItemThe Impact of BRT Systems on Local Economic Development: The Case of Meadowlands, Soweto(University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 2015) Ngobeni, MatimbaUrban planners and transportation advocates around the world have become more innovative in confronting regional and global development concerns such as rapid urbanisation, congestion, urban sprawl, climate change, mounting infrastructure costs and high levels of urban poverty. In addressing these pressing issues, among many other policy advances, Local Economic Development and Transit Oriented Development have grown in popularity because they are considered important strategies in the notion of sustainable development. Due to the aforestated economic realities, environmental and social problems, most cities around the world support a change of transport modes in favour of efficient and sustainable mass transit options over private vehicles. As one example of this shift, BRT systems have become widely implemented. There are a wide-ranging reported socioeconomic and environmental benefits associated with BRT systems worldwide. This study focuses on the economic prospects they do offer in the context of Johannesburg. The central objective of this study is then to scrutinise the impacts the Johannesburg’s Rea Vaya BRT network has had on businesses and residents’ livelihoods in Meadowlands, Soweto. The study uses a single case study to deepen an understanding of how public transport improvements tend to influence social and economic development strategies in previously disadvantaged, emerging economy areas. The research is based on the critical analysis of literature on TOD and LED and qualitative interviews in Meadowlands and their critical analysis. A set of nuanced perspectives emerged on how the City of Johannesburg might formulate and carry out future TOD policy and projects as a way of effectively facilitating economic development through public interventions. Most pertinently, the study found that the operational Rea Vaya system in Meadowlands has improved access to social and economic opportunities. It has provided employment opportunities and triggered the development of Small, Medium and Micro-sized Enterprises. The provision of BRT services also diversified and improved mobility options in this area. However, affordability still remains a two-fold question among the BRT users and non-users.
- ItemTo What Extent Can Free Wireless Broadband Infrastructure Reinvigorate Church Square in Pretoria?(2015) Pule, KatlegoSome critics of the information age believe that technology could potentially add to a public space’s genius loci as the internet is fast becoming ubiquitous in cities. Through investigating this phenomenon, this research report explored the impact of free wifi in Pretoria’s Church Square focusing on how it affects the functions and user’s social interactions within the space. The methods used for exploring this were adopted from existing case studies employing user surveys and various observations techniques. The findings revealed that free wifi alone cannot alter the user’s social interactions and the functions of Church Square to a great extent as there are other contributors to the space’s genius loci. Despite this limitation, the presence of free wifi adds another dimension by encouraging alternative methods of communication in Church Square.
- ItemStreet Trade Block Leaders and the Governance of Street Trade: Narrating Untold Stories in Inner City Johannesburg(University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 2015) Mmbulaheni, KwashabaStreet trading management is relatively undocumented and quite complex. This entails dealing with informality, mobility, fluidity, survivalism and entrepreneurship, competition over land uses, and complex politics. There is limited understanding of municipal management and its every day practice in Johannesburg. Municipal management is characterised by opacity, rumours of corruption and informal practices. One character in this system through which the everyday practice of street trading management can be approached is the trader block leader. A street trader block leader is an elected representative of traders who negotiates and communicates with the municipal management on behalf of traders. A Block leader is a street trader that has been allocated space formally by municipal management according to the CoJ policy. They have to occupy a designated space like any other trader. From the managements view point a trader block leader is the eyes and ears of management on the street. Block leaders play the part of a broker mediating between state and traders. They can also be viewed as an extension of the state at street level because they receive 20% discount on rentals as a reward for their work. The purpose of this research is to explore, present and analyse street trading management at street level in inner city Johannesburg, through the lens of block trader leaders discourses and practices, at the interface between state and traders.
- ItemExploring the Implications of SPLUMA’ (16: 2013) Municipal Planning Tribunal in South African Local Government: The Case of the City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality, Johannesburg(University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 2015) Sibiya, ZwelibanziTogether with the enactment of a new legislature in the form of SPLUMA (16: 2013), the change from a provincial based DFA Tribunal to a local based SPLUMA Tribunal raised many implications and issues for the local government sector. The objective of the research was to explore the implications of adopting a local government based tribunal. The purpose was mainly focused on the operations of a tribunal. A qualitative method was used in the research and it included analysing contents as well as conducting interviews. International case studies were used to analyse the findings. It was found that the CJMM will use its planning committee as a temporary tribunal. The implementation of the tribunal has uncovered capacity, resource and governance issues that exist within the CJMM. Therefore, the implication of adopting and implementing a tribunal for the CJMM include having to increase resources and capacity as well finding ways to maintain the transparency within the tribunal.
- ItemA Critical Examination of the Nature of the Public Participation Process: A Case of the Solomon Mahlangu Freedom Square Project(2015-07) Khanyile, Ntokozo VincentThis research study sought to evaluate the participation process which was put into practice by the Tshwane City Council as part of implementing the Solomon Mahlangu Freedom Square (SMFS) project in 2012. NMA Effective Social Strategies were appointed by the City to facilitate the public participation process and Ikemeleng Architects to do the design of the square. The square is a public space of heritage significance to the locals and its upgrading bears a remembrance devoted to Solomon Mahlangu and other apartheid struggle heroes from Mamelodi Township. Accordingly, a variety of local organisations were invited to share their stories and memories around this memorial marking. In turn, this would help the designers of the space to collate information which would be handy for the design of the space. This study then sought to investigate the nature of the public participation process that was used in the SMFS project. It examines the rationale behind the promotion of participation in this project, the methods used. Furthermore, it analyses the participants’ interests, their roles and inputs which they contributed into the design brief. Hence, the study contributes to the radical theorist’s responses to the mainstreaming of participation that have tended to view participation as dual, i.e. as means to an end (participation to achieve certain development objectives) or an end in itself. Indeed participation holds a promise of mankind emancipation from the oppressive system of power. However, some scholars have observed that participation could be used as a way of co-opting local organisations or civil society and communities into top down development schemes that serve interests of those in power. On the contrary, others have argued that civil society is in place to guard against the exercise of power by the state or those with private interest and thus aiding people’s participation at grassroots level. This report recounts the different perspectives highlighted above in the experience of the SMFS project. It employs data pertinent to the project and in-depth interviews to answer the central question: what was the nature of the public participation process employed in the design of SMFS? The study then seeks to contribute to the understanding of different denotations and procedures of participation. While governments are requires to streamline participation, the study also adds the understanding of civil society’s role and the need for is mobilisation in public participation. The researcher argues that participation spaces and methods should be flexible to allow collective action amongst the state, civil society and communities. Furthermore, the paper argues that participants should begin to take a more intricate process of engaging plans and not to merely shape them through partial inputs and fragmentary processes.
- ItemThe Economic Evolution of a Former Homeland Capital: The Case of Siyabuswa, KwaNdebele(University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 2015-11) Mahlangu, GladysHomelands, also known as Bantustans, played a significant role during apartheid to foster the vision of separate development set out by the apartheid government. As a result homeland small towns have inherited a legacy of spatial inequality in terms of being located far from social and economic opportunities. The study seeks to understand the current status of a former homeland capital, particularly investigating how it has economically evolved and survived over time in spite of its past condition. The study was conducted in Siyabuswa, Mpumalanga Province, a former homeland capital of KwaNdebele. In investigating how the former homeland capital has evolved the study interviewed 21 households that currently live in Siyabuswa, together with the LED manager and property managers of the township. It can be concluded that such places are experiencing declining populations and struggling to diversify their economic base. However the investment by government has significantly contributed to the survival of these places in addition to the social capital that exist in such places hence there are still people who reside there. It is important that homeland small towns are understood in their current context in order to implement appropriate policies that will assist in the development of former homeland towns. Recommendations have been provided indicating alternatives for which how such places can be better assisted in improving their status- quo.
- ItemLearning From Communities' Involvement in the Management of Parks: The Case of Zoo Lake and Thokoza Park, Johannesburg(University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 2015-11) Hadebe, SizakelecommunityToday officials within Johannesburg City Parks and Zoo face the daunting challenge of delivering high quality public spaces that have meanings that are stable enough to accommodate the cultural diversity and social polarisation that are inherent in contemporary Johannesburg. This report examines a recent trend towards joint management of public spaces, where responsibilities are shared between the state and communities interested in these spaces along the lines of what Jones (2010) has called the “Friends of the Park” (FOP). It is argued in this report, with reference to Don Mitchell’s (1995) work with People’s Park in San Diego, that instances where a particular public space is perceived to be in decline are a reflection of contradictions within that public space’s socio-cultural dimension where the introduction of new activities or a new kind of user into the space conflicts with the commonly held meaning of the space. Such a space would thus be characterised by a crisis of meaning. Although the meaning of public space is contested, there is a tendency over time to move towards a stability of meaning, referred to in this report as consensus. While it usually resolves the crisis of meaning, this consensus does not necessarily mean a shift towards justice or towards an equitable end (Castells, 2003). Without making any value judgements on the end result, by studying FOPs’ efforts to engage with the management of parks, this research essentially seeks to understand how actors (members of the community, employees of the state, political activists and others) work towards this kind of consensus. It is noted in this research that an FOP approach risks romanticising participation by thinking of the transition from invented spaces to invited spaces as being organic, natural and perhaps even inevitable; and thereby overlooking the fact that invented spaces today exist in the context of deliberate efforts by planners to mobilise communities for the purpose of absorbing them into the formal planning structure. In the context of neoliberalism it could be said then that such an approach to park management might allow governments to dump their responsibilities on the communities they are meant to serve.
- ItemChanging Practices of the State: Johannesburg City Parks and Zoo Officials’ Views on Opportunities and Challenges of Community Engagement(University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 2015-11) Bosaka, PatienceSouth African cities are embedded in a paradigm of transformation, informed by post- apartheid aspirations, good governance principles, and the value of community engagement in a democratic context. The Parastatal Johannesburg City Parks and Zoo situated in this broader context thus also envisage transformation in their ways of urban governance. This research takes interest in the institutional reshuffling of JCPZ that has resulted in their move towards the promotion of community development in the management and development of urban parks. The reshuffling aims to respond to pressing issues such as mismanagement, crime, homelessness, unemployment, vandalism inter alia which manifest in public green spaces, showcasing inequalities and poverty in ways that are difficult to manage. One of the strategies that are emphasized in responses to these issues is community engagement which is the arena that grounds this research investigation. The paper looks at JCPZ officials’ practices, challenges and experiences in their mandate of community engagement and demonstrates the importance of structure (the institutional programmes and systems put in place for this task) and perceptions (what officials’ feel and think about communities) as influential to the actual State practices. It also reviles the other side of the story (the officials’ narratives) about community engagement which is hardly documented in community engagement discourses.
- ItemFamily Units to Address the Stigam of Hostel Life? A Study of Sethokga Hostel(University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 2015-11) Moloto, Shereen TumeloIn the wake of the political transition in South Africa in 1994 and for some time preceding this time frame violence, squalor, overcrowding and socio-political strife had long become characteristic of some of the features associated with hostels and the stigma of hostel life (Thurman, 1997). Due to its history as systematically disempowered, yet, politically vocal enclaves, we have come to know or perhaps be familiar with hostels as highly contentious and antagonistic environments, with a burdened local identity (Ramphele, 1993; Benit-Gbaffou and Mathoho, 2010). The stigma of hostel life constitutes among a host of conditions, an innate reality where the residents of hostels inhibit isolated, destitute and unbecoming spaces (Segal, 1991). Built as single-sex labour compounds to accommodate African migrant labourers for the duration of their stay in South Africa’s white urban areas, hostels occupy a unique position within the country’s physical and mental landscape (Thurman, 1997). As sojourners in South Africa’s white urban areas, the law constructed a ‘legal’ person called a labourer who was ‘authorised’ to temporarily reside in the urban space but had to retreat to their rural quarters once their ‘service’ had been concluded (Pienaar and Crofton, 2005). Thus to draw attention to the unkindness of their living conditions many hostel dwellers have continued for the better part of South Africa’s democracy to ‘choose’ physical violence as a tool perceived to best serve and afford some attention to their troubles (Pienaar and Crofton, 2005). Within the context of this research report the term hostel/s widely refer to single-sex dormitory style labour compounds, which emerged in South Africa under the apartheid system and ideology of separate development (Pienaar and Crofton, 2005). The ideology of separate development and the resultant influx control policies were a distinctive trait of the government of a particular juncture in the country’s history - a government that as part of its mandate held to discourage the permanent settlement of the African populace in urban areas (Ramphele, 1993). This further translated itself in the government’s refusal to plan and consent to any sort of ‘meaningful’ investment into areas designated for the other who were primarily located in the townships on the periphery of the urban terrain (Ramphele, 1993).
- ItemThe Value of Unveiling the Experiences of Black-Owned Businesses in South Africa in the Construction Sector(University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 2015-11) Dladla, NomathembaThis research report mainly focuses on how planners can influence policy with regards to economic empowerment from a construction point of view. To obtain a better understanding of how economic empowerment is translated in the South African context, it is paramount to scrutinise the policies and strategies that have been set in place. The report engages with concepts such as entrepreneurialism and business ownership that have been discussed by authors such as Southall and Rogerson. With the understanding of such concepts, a theoretical foundation is set, that enables the author to create a conceptual framework that visualises how economic empowerment is meant to pan out in reality and at a small scale. Not only does this report discuss and analyse the theoretical understanding of economic empowerment, but it also studies the personal experiences of business owners in the construction sector. The reason why the personal experiences of business owners are prioritised in this study is because they are used as a tool to determine how far or close the existing set strategies are from an individual’s reality. Soweto has been used as the case study to closely analyse economic empowerment through life experiences. The findings produced in this case study therefore create a basis for the way forward, in which planners could possibly adapt to help improve policy.
- ItemThe Interface Between Practice and Theory Within Participation and Decision Making: The Development of a Precinct Plan in the Suburb of Bramley, Johannesburg(University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 2015-11) Lishivha, KeitumetseIn essence the study will investigate the link between Governance and Development control and how fair and inclusive the processes of decision making are by looking at these processes in the formation of the Precinct Plan of a specific neighbourhood. At the end of this research process I outline what has been discovered through the research process and identify to what extent the participatory process within the Precinct Plan process has accounted for the different interests of different stakeholders. From that I deduce if and how the decision making process in precinct Plans needs to be changed to be more participatory or whether we need to find more pragmatic and contextually applicable participatory processes to ensure equal contribution in contested spaces. The main interest of this study investigates how different interests of stakeholders are managed .The study attempts to uncover the rationale behind changes in land use and the prioritisation of land use in that specific space and how these decisions are particularity influenced by interest-based negotiations.
- ItemUrban Agriculture and Sustainable Livelihoods: the Siyakhana Initiative(University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 2015-11) van Niekerk, BiancaThis Honours research report assesses whether participation in urban agriculture helps reduce poverty in Johannesburg and improves the livelihoods of its inner city poor. The investigation was undertaken in Bez Valley, Bezuidenhout Park, where the Siyakhana food garden is located. The findings of the investigation revealed that the Siyakhana Initiative has improved the livelihoods of its gardeners by improving their food security, helping them gain an income and has become a place where the gardeners are able to benefit by learning about permaculture. However, the findings also revealed that the gardeners have not fully benefitted from the food garden, but rather that they have been able to receive income simply due to external funding the Initiative has received. Also, the report shows that the Siyakhana garden has not been able to extend its benefits to the broader community, mainly due to its poor business model. This nevertheless laid bare the fact that the Initiative is in need of more support from the CoJ despite their attempts to put food security on the policy agenda. It has also emphasised that support from urban planning and local government as a whole is needed in order to ensure that urban agricultural projects such as Siyakhana become more sustainable in the future.
- ItemRetail Development in Ekurhuleni South: The Impact of Chris Hani Crossing on the Space Economy of Vosloorus and its Immediate Surroundings(University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 2015-11) Mtshali, SkhumbuzoAs cities continue to grow and progress the agenda and work of urban planners and economists generally overlap. In light of this, understanding microeconomic programs and problems that affect the space economy is a key stride which has the potential of providing useful insights that can help plan efficiently and ultimately devise innovative ideas, more especially for long neglected communities. Communities living in the townships, otherwise known as ‘third space’, of Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality used to travel to former apartheid towns such as Boksburg and Germiston for economic utilities (i.e. Shopping and formal job opportunities). The growth of middle class populace together with the augmentation of economically active members in Ekurhuleni south increased the demand for retail centres that would bring goods and services similar to those afforded to their counterparts in wealthier northern regions. This has sought to reverse some of the legacies of apartheid such as the elimination of the need to travel to areas outside the township for economic needs thus making a drastic impact on the space economy of the region. Whether, by virtue of current political dispensation, this has been motivated by the goal of transforming the space economy of previously marginalised area or the capitalist need to penetrate new markets the spatial outcomes are worth analysing. Micro-spatial transformative tendencies of retail development, which have remained in the blind spot of most municipal authorities in the South African context cannot be ignored or underestimated any further as a development endeavour which has the potential to reshape and reconfigure cities of the South. In addition, part of the Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality’s socioeconomic and spatial goal as well as the Gauteng Provincial Government’s radical economic transformation pillar is to engage in programs that help rectify the apartheid spatial patterns (Manamela, 2015; Motsaanaka, 2008). To interrogate this Chris Hani Crossing has been selected. This research was inspired by a number critical views and debates on the role of malls and shopping centres in third spaces. The idea of third spaces, which will also be interrogated in the body of this research report, is a fairly new concept for an old occurrence which denotes a spatial realm that is exclusive and unique to South African cities. It is every so often referred to as a township or ‘kasi’ (colloquial expression derived from the Afrikaans word lokasi) – which is commonly understood as an underdeveloped space that is neither urban nor rural that was created as a separate monofunctional reserve for people of colour during apartheid, located on the fringes of towns (Mahajan, 2014; Pernegger and Godehart, 2007; Qabaka, 2013). Some of these debates are epitomised by this quote adapted from Urban Land Mark (2013: 2) - "These developers, they just come here, build their shopping centres and then take all the profits out of our areas." This research interrogates such statements by questioning from a planning perspective, the combination of interrelated aspatial and spatial aspects which has led to deeper research and discussions. In conjunction, the development application also considers both the impact of the shopping centre on the distorted spatial makeup of the area and secondary outcomes such as the further provision of job opportunities for the surrounding community both during the construction and operational phases of the development (Motsaanaka, 2008). With the use of both qualitative and quantitative methods of enquiry this research has discovered a localised impact of retail development on the space economy of Vosloorus. Initially, the spatial impact was activated by the development and expansion of basic infrastructure services such as electricity and water to the area which turned the Bierman and Brickfield Road intersection into a prime location for investment. This, as per development plan, was followed by the development of Chris Hani Crossing which further attracted other economic activities thus changing the mono-functional nature of Vosloorus. Correspondingly, retail is a key driver of city expansion and main shaper of the urban form, and infrastructure is a catalyst of development which is crucial for economic and social development, that improves the quality of people’s lives (Fairgray, 2015; Gwagwa, 2014). The secondary developments which have now agglomerated around the mall are the newly established Vosloorus Crossing across the road, light industrial development in the form of automobile industries and brick-making hardware firms on different parts of the intersection, the construction of the biggest medical centre in Kathorus located a walking distance away from the mall, the concentration of informal retail stalls around the mall and the attraction of mobile real estate offices and educational institutions to the area. On the other hand aspatial impacts identified were the increased level of employment, the curtailment of travelling distance and time which has resulted to locals having more disposable time and income to spend on other things as well as the simultaneous rise of both the formal and informal property markets. Evidently, infrastructure development and the establishment of a retail centre in a previously marginalised monofunctional area operated as sequential catalysts of transformation and further development thereby responding to the objective of rectifying the apartheid spatial geography.
- ItemNavigating the City: Female Students’ Experiences of Movement in Johannesburg(University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 2015-11) Makan, DarshikaIt is clear that men and women experience the city differently. The practice of urban planning tends to ignore this and continues planning in a gender-neutral fashion. Planners should aim to have a wider understanding of different groupings of individuals of society in order to plan inclusive cities that accommodate all its citizens. Johannesburg is a city that students move to, temporarily or permanently, to further their studies. Women’s ability to fully utilise the city depends on their ability to access transportation. Violence occurs within the public realm of Johannesburg whereby women’s perceptions of danger limits their movement in the city. This research explores how female students who are newcomers to Johannesburg (from within South Africa and foreign nationals) experience moving around in the public realm. This research investigates the extent that physical accessibility and perceptions of safety have on the movement patterns of female student newcomers. The research drew on the experiences of fifteen female students from University of the Witwatersrand. The fieldwork was conducted through a set of initial interviews as well as experiences recorded in a notebook and a second follow-up interview. Analysis was done through mapping, comparing respondents’ experiences and through relating findings to theory. The outcome of the research revealed that physical accessibility and perceptions of safety impacts female students’ movements, as well as other factors of the length of time since the move to Johannesburg, the cost of movement and whether students have company to move between spaces and their perceptions of spaces. It was discovered that their movement choices are more complex than the above two factors. Gender sensitive planning is the main planning tool that may assist in creating positive experiences of female student newcomers in the city. It is understood that planners need to consider the legibility of spaces and the safety of different modes of transportation. These students, due to their unfamiliarity with the city and limited finances, require easy access between spaces. It is also understood that institutions, such as the university, should aim to assist these young women with settling in to a new city environment as adjustment issues often do arise. The ability to better plan for this grouping of young people will ensure that Johannesburg is an all-inclusive city that does not further discriminate against women in public spaces.
- ItemCoffee in the City: An Analysis of the Hipster Culture’s Influence on Urban Regeneration in Inner City Johannesburg(University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 2015-11) Memela, WetuThe modern image of inner city Johannesburg is one that has undergone many transformations. These changes have been brought on by many different things, from the abolishment of political regimes to the rise of popular youth culture, such as the hipster culture today. Literature not only provides clear understandings but also debates, thoughts and questions of the hipster culture, urban regeneration and even the combination of the two. This research aims to understand the effect that the budding hipster culture has on inner city regeneration efforts in Johannesburg. Through the application of the Braamfontein case study, data collected in field work can be analysed through the literary understanding to paint an in-depth picture of not only the manifestation of the hipster culture in Braamfontein but also what affect their presence has on the district.
- ItemParallel Land Use and Land Development Application Procedures in a Semi-Urban Context: A Case Study of the Thembisile Hani Local Municipality(University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 2015-11) Motloung, LeratoRural and former homeland areas, mostly within a semi-urban context, are predominantly characterised by parallel statutory and customary legislative regimes which are both fully recognised under the current constitutional dispensation of the Republic of South Africa. The existence of this dichotomy in rural South Africa pre-dates the 1996 Constitutional dispensation and is therefore the legacy of the apartheid era, which saw the passing of various laws such as the Bantu Homelands Constitution Act, 1971 (Act 21 of 1971) which was also later renamed the Self-Governing Territories Constitution Act, 1971 (Act 21 of 1971). The basis of the passing of these laws emanated from subsequent laws such as the Bantu Authorities Act, 1951 (Act68 of 1951) and the Promotion of Bantu Self-Government Act, 1959 (Act 46 of 1959) which also resulted in the establishment of tribal/traditional, territorial and regional authorities which relied on customary and indigenous understanding to the management of land.The statutory regulation of planning and land use management was later introduced in the self-governing and homeland areas with the promulgation of Proclamations R293 of 1962 and R188 of 1969 which were enacted as Land Use and Planning Regulations in terms of the Black Administration Act, 1927 (Act 38 of 1927). This signalled the beginning of a legacy of parallel land use and land development application procedures found in the semi-urban contexts of Post-Apartheid South Africa. The Post-1994planning legislative reform process has resulted in a planning system that is very complex and difficult for the rural communities to comprehend, and for the tribal/traditional authorities to embrace. The reason for the challenge induced on the rural community is due to the current planning laws that prescribe land use and land development application procedures that have very technical and expensive requirements for the majority of the rural community to understand and afford.On the other hand, discontent from the tribal/traditional authorities is due to the fact that the current institutional arrangements in terms of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 (Act 108 of 1996), the Local Government: Municipal Structures Act, 1998 (Act 117 of 1998), the Local Government: Municipal Systems Act & Regulations, 2000 (Act 32 of 2000), as well as the new Spatial Planning and Land Use Management Act, 2013 (Act 16 of 2013) has placed municipal Councils at Local Government, at the centre of planning and land use and development management decision-making, with tribal authorities as consulted participants in the process.In attaining the intended outcomes of planning, this therefore calls for an incremental approach to the introduction of a statutory land use management system, in as far as land use and development application procedures in a semi-urban context are concerned. This approach is one that embraces the incorporation of local indigenous and customary knowledge and understanding into land use planning and resource management. With the Thembisile Hani Local Municiplality as a case study, emphasis is placed on the context-specificity of land use management systems and applicable procedures in a semi-urban context.
- ItemEvaluating the Effects of Spatial Politics of Public Transportation in Johannesburg: A Focus on Bus Systems(University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 2015-11) Mthimkulu, NoluthandoThe importance of effective and efficient public transport systems in developing cities has become a topic of focus. Here, the research report seeks to investigate the spatial politics of public transport systems in the city of Johannesburg. With a spatial and social structure that remains sprawled and separated, there is an inherent need to discuss the value of public transport systems and their role in integrating and transforming the city. The research attempts to provide an enlightening overview of bus systems in the city, particularly the Rea Vaya Bus Rapid Transit, Metrobus and Public Utility Transport Corporation and to discover whether they have a place in the city’s future urban form. It does this through exploring notions of access, integration, resilience and transformation and how public transport routes are affected by bureaucratic and spatial decisions. I argue that public transport has the power to shape the city’s urban form and social structure. This leads to how the disjuncture in the system affects daily commuters and anyone who is required to interact with public transport. There are many different recommendations that are made to facilitate better systems. These include better infrastructure and providing more forms of access in public transport. I also recommend, at a more cognitive level, the changing of perceptions. In coda, the research provides final evaluation of what has been discussed with regards to having more effective public transport systems.
- ItemMaking Gender Inclusive Spaces Around Rea Vaya Transit Areas: The Case of Commissioner Street.(University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 2015-11) Conco, ZolaThe planning profession has been regarded as a mechanical, value free activity and mainly dominated by male perceptions. Planning policy has begun to consider more social issues, however, even with this transition, gender issues in the urban environment have been a particular challenge and have not been completely understood by planners. As a result gender issues have often not been considered in the physical design of the urban environments. The travel patterns of women and men have generally been understood to differ due to the different roles played by women and men in our societies. However, women’s vulnerability may also shape their travel patterns within the city. While numerous studies have presented findings about the strong relationship between women and their fears within the built environment, particularly in public spaces, little attention has been given to the relationship between women’s fear and transit environments in South African cities. This is an important relationship to be considered, as the degree to which this affects women will determine the extent to which they are able to participate equally in the city. A number of development plans have been introduced into the city of Johannesburg, as a method of improving the lives of its citizens. One of these has been the introduction of the Rea Vaya Bus Rapid Transit system (BRT). However, it appears that little consideration has been paid to the environments around that BRT stations, primarily with concerns of gender sensitivities. Therefore, this study investigates whether the physical design of the built environment around the BRT stations has considered the effects of gender sensitivities on women’s travel patterns. The research assess whether the built environment around the bus stations have helped to reduce the spatial barriers faced by women in the city, namely their vulnerability and facilitate their right to the city. A case study was done around the Rea Vaya station on Commissioner Street and the adjacent urban spaces. Women of various ages were interviewed in an open-ended manner to gather in-depth information about women’s personal experiences and concerns for safety in the city centre. The case study also included a safety audit of the site, which was conducted by the researcher. High levels of actual and perceived safety amongst women were found, especially for walking in the area and using the BRT at night. As a result, women who were using the site were found to have distinct needs in ensuring their safety and comfort while using the space. A mismatch was found in the responses of women’s expressed needs and the variety of common safety strategies implemented by the City of Johannesburg (CoJ). The conclusion argues that women’s safety is an essential but neglected issue, which deserves the attention of urban planners. Drawing on responses from the case study and interviews, the research offers a set of recommendations that planning policy that focuses on the initiatives and responses that can be used to improve on women’s experience of the site.