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ItemLocal Politics of Xenophobia(JAAS, 2016) Ms Blaser Mapitsa, CaitlinDrawing on research from five peri-urban sites across South Africa on how local government is responding to mobility, this research explores how xenophobia is being produced by local governance processes and structures. Building a better understanding of the mechanisms of exclusion in local government is essential not only for planning interventions that may strengthen democracy, but to understand how the daily practices of local government can promote, or undermine democracy. ItemThe six-sphere framework: A practical tool for assessing monitoring and evaluation systems(African Evaluation Journal, 2017) Kieron D., CrawleySuccessful evaluation capacity development (ECD) at regional, national and institutional levels has been built on a sound understanding of the opportunities and constraints in establishing and sustaining a monitoring and evaluation system. Diagnostics are one of the tools that ECD agents can use to better understand the nature of the ECD environment. Conventional diagnostics have typically focused on issues related to technical capacity and the ‘bridging of the gap’ between evaluation supply and demand. In so doing, they risk overlooking the more subtle organisational and environmental factors that lie outside the conventional diagnostic lens. ItemGender responsiveness diagnostic of national monitoring and evaluation systems – methodological reflections(African Evaluation Journal, 2017-04-26) Caitlin, Blaser Mapitsa; Madri S., Jansen van RensburgThis article reflects on the implementation of a diagnostic study carried out to understand the gender responsiveness of the national monitoring and evaluation (M&E) systems of Benin, South Africa and Uganda. Carrying out the study found that the potential for integrating the cross-cutting systems of gender and monitoring and evaluation (M&E) are strong. At the same time, it highlighted a range of challenges intersecting these two areas of work. This article explores these issues, which range from logistical to conceptual. ItemMeasuring the effect of Evaluation Capacity Building Initiatives in Africa: A review(African Evaluation Journal, 2017-04-26) Ms Candice, Morkel; Mr Mokgophana, RamasobanaThe growing demand for evidence to support policy decisions, guide resource allocation and demonstrate results has elevated the need for expertise in monitoring and evaluation (M&E). Despite the mushrooming of short courses in M&E, their impact on improving the capacity to meet the demand has not been adequately and comprehensively measured or evaluated. The purpose of this article was to highlight the need for improving the measurement of evaluation capacity building (ECB) to better understand what works in building M&E capacity in Africa. ItemDesigning diagnostics in complexity: Measuring technical and contextual aspects in monitoring and evaluation systems(African Evaluation Journal, 2017-04-28) Caitlin, Blaser Mapitsa; Marcel T., KorthThis article emphasizes the importance of reflecting on the methods employed when designing diagnostic tools for monitoring and evaluation (M&E) systems. It sheds light on a broader debate about how we understand and assess M&E systems within their political and organisational contexts. ItemEvaluation capacity assessment of the transport sector in South Africa: An innovative approach(African Evaluation Journal, 2017-05-31) Basia D., Bless; Khotso, Tsotsotso; Eden K., GebremichaelThis article was based on the study on the assessment of evaluation capacity in the transport sector in South Africa. The purpose of the study was to test the Six Sphere Framework (SSF), which is an innovative evaluation capacity diagnostic tool developed by the Centre for Learning on Evaluation and Results (CLEAR-AA) based in South Africa. ItemThe search for a method to unpack urban complexity: Case study of the City of Johannesburg(African Evaluation Journal, 2017-07-24) Laila R., Smith; Lewis, Ndhlovu; Stephen, NarsooThe City of Johannesburg (COJ) provides services to approximately 5 million people; yet the elements of monitoring and evaluation remain a missing link in the design and implementation of programmes. This was the case even after the introduction of the monitoring and evaluation framework in 2012. This case study is filling an empirical gap. ItemAssessing gender responsiveness of the Government-wide Monitoring and Evaluation System in South Africa(Development Southern Africa, 2017-11-11) Dr Tirivanhu, Precious; Mr Jansen van Rensburg, MandriThere is growing recognition of the critical role that National Monitoring and Evaluation Systems can play in achieving sustainable development through enhancing effectiveness, efficiency and sustainability of policies and programmes. The South African government legislated the Government-wide Monitoring and Evaluation System (GWMES) in 2009. The extent of gender responsiveness of the system has not been assessed yet gender mainstreaming ensures that gender needs, realities and issues are consistently and specifically considered in policies, programmes and projects. The study utilises data from document reviews and key informant interviews to assess gender. mainstreaming in the National Evaluation Policy (NEP) and the GWMES using a gender diagnostic matrix. Results indicate that the GWMES and NEP rank low in most gender-mainstreaming dimensions. However, the study concludes that existing policies and institutional frameworks if well supported by multiple stakeholders are conducive for effective gender mainstreaming within the GWMES in South Africa. ItemAdvancing Evidence-Based Practice for Improved Public Sector Performance: Lessons From the Implementation of the Management Performance Assessment Tool in South Africa(Journal of Public Administration, 2017-12) Dr Tirivanhu, Precious; Dr Olaleye, Wole; Ms Bester, AngelaEnhancing public sector performance is on the agenda of most governments. In South Africa, as the analysis of the literature indicates, there is a dearth on studies that systematically assess the implementation of public sector performance improvement tools. This article is based on the study that explores the implementation of the Management Performance Assessment Tool (MPAT) within the South African public sector for the period 2011-2016. It borrows from implementation science and assesses the critical components in the implementation process. It utilises a secondary data review, experiential knowledge from action research and semi-structured interviews. The critical implementation components are outlined and lessons from the implementation process are drawn to inform future practice. ItemAssessing Evaluation Education in African Tertiary Education Institutions: Opportunities and reflections(South African Journal of Higher Education, 2018) Dr Tirivanhu, Precious; Dr Chirau, Takunda; Ms Waller, Cara; Mr Robertson, HanlieThe demand for knowledge from evaluations to inform evidence-based policy making continues to rise in Africa. Simultaneously, there is increased recognition of the role tertiary education institutions can play in strengthening evaluation practice through high quality evaluation education. This article investigates the status quo of evaluation education in selected tertiary institutions in Anglophone African countries. The article utilizes a mixed methods research methodology that blends secondary data review, an online survey using a structured questionnaire and two regional workshops. Data was collected from 12 Anglophone African tertiary education institutions. Findings indicate that evaluation education in Anglophone African tertiary institutions is mostly in the nascent stages and there are mixed feelings on the appropriate entry levels (undergraduate or postgraduate). The study highlights the need for developing a specialized evaluation curriculum as evaluation education still borrows from theories and methodologies from the North. Institutional, operational and policy-related challenges are highlighted as well as the potential for collaboration among various stakeholders in strengthening the design and implementation of evaluation education. Key tenets for strengthening evaluation education are highlighted and discussed. ItemDiagnosing monitoring and evaluation capacity in Africa(African Evaluation Journal, 2018) Caitlin, Blaser Mapitsa; Linda, KhumaloSince 2015, the Centre for Learning on Evaluation and Results-Anglophone Africa (CLEAR-AA) has implemented more than seven diagnostic tools to better understand monitoring and evaluation (M&E) systems in the region. Through the process of adapting global tools to make them more appropriate to an African context, CLEAR-AA has learned several lessons about contextually relevant definitions and boundaries of M&E systems. ItemAfrican Review of Economics and Finance Conference(AREF Consult and Wits Business School, 2018) Professor Alagidede, Paul; Associate Professor Obeng-Odoom, Franklin; Dr Mensah, Odei JonesThis paper endeavours to examine the impact of FDI on income distribution in South Africa. The study utilized annual time series data covering the period 1970–2016, and employed an Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag Model (ARDL) and the error correction method (ECM) to investigate the long –run and the short-run parameters between the observed variables. The regression results suggest a long-run cointegration relationship among the variables. While FDI, education, domestic investment and trade openness have negative and statistically significant coefficients which suggests that these variables reduce income inequality in South Africa in the long run; financial development has a positive and a statistically significant coefficient and this implies that there is still a gap between the rich and the poor as far as access to credit markets is concerned, and this aggravates income inequality. This study recommends that more investment-inducing activities for both domestic and foreign investments be encouraged in parallel with increased investments in human capital development, as well improved access to capital markets through allowing the poor to invest in high return investments in order to achieve inclusive economic growth. ItemThe emergence of government evaluation systems in Africa: The case of Benin, Uganda and South Africa(African Evaluation Journal, 2018-03-29) Ian, Goldman; Albert, Byamugisha; Abdoulaye, Gounou; Laila R., Smith; Stanley, Ntakumba; Timothy, Lubanga; Damase, Sossou; Karen, Rot-MunstermannEvaluation is not widespread in Africa, particularly evaluations instigated by governments rather than donors. However since 2007 an important policy experiment is emerging in South Africa, Benin and Uganda, which have all implemented national evaluation systems. These three countries, along with the Centre for Learning on Evaluation and Results (CLEAR) Anglophone Africa and the African Development Bank, are partners in a pioneering African partnership called Twende Mbele, funded by the United Kingdom’s Department for International Development (DFID) and Hewlett Foundation, aiming to jointly strengthen monitoring and evaluation (M&E) systems and work with other countries to develop M&E capacity and share experiences. ItemRooting Evaluation Guidelines in Relational Ethics: Lessons From Africa(American Journal of Evaluation, 2019) Ms Blaser Mapitsa, Caitlin; Ms Polzer Ngwato, TaraAs global discussions of evaluation standards become more contextually nuanced, culturally responsive conceptions of ethics have not been sufficiently discussed. In academic social research, ethical clearance processes have been designed to protect vulnerable people from harm related to participation in a research project. This article expands the ambit of ethical protection thinking and proposes a relational ethics approach for evaluation practitioners. This centers an analysis of power relations among and within all the different stakeholder groups in order to establish, in a contextspecific manner, which stakeholders are vulnerable and in need of protection. The approach also contextualizes the nature of “the public good,” as part of an ethical consideration of interest tradeoffs during evaluations. The discussion is informed by our experiences in African contexts and speaks to the “Made in Africa” research agenda but is also relevant to other global contexts where alternatives to “developed country” ontological assumptions about the roles of researchers and participations and the nature of vulnerability are being reconsidered. ItemDeterminants of skills demand in a state- intervening labour market. The case of South African transport sector(Emerald Insights, 2019-02-20) Khotso, Tsotsotso; Elizabeth, Montshiwa; Precious, Tirivanhu; Tebogo, Fish; Siyabonga, Sibiya; Tshepo, Mlangeni; Matsemela, Moloi; Nhlanhla, MahlanguPurpose – The purpose of this paper is to improve the understanding of the drivers and determinants of skills demand in South Africa, given the country’s history and its current design as a developmental state. Design/methodology/approach – In this study, a mixed methods approach is used. The study draws information from in-depth interviews with transport sector stakeholders including employers, professional bodies, sector regulatory bodies and training providers. Complementary to the interviews, the study also analyses employer-reported workplace skills plans from 1,094 transport sector firms updated annually. A Heckman correction model is applied. Findings – The study finds that changes in competition, technology, ageing employees, market conditions and government regulations are among the most frequently stated determinants reported through interviews. Using a Heckman regression model, the study identifies eight determining factors, which include location of firm, size of a firm, occupation type, racial and generational transformation, sub-sector of the firm, skills alignment to National Qualification Framework, reason for skills scarcity and level of skills scarcity reported. The South African transport sector skills demand is therefore mainly driven by the country’s history and consequently its current socio-economic policies as applied by the state itself. Research limitations/implications – Wage rates are explored during stakeholder interviews and the study suggests that wage rates are an insignificant determinant of skills demand in the South African transport sector. However, due to poor reporting by firms, wage rates did not form a part of the quantitative analysis of the study. This serves as a limitation of the study. Practical implications – Through this research, it is now clear that the state has more determining power (influence) in the transport sector than it was perceived. The state can use its power to be a more effective enabler towards increasing employer participation in skills development of the sector. Social implications – With increased understanding and awareness of state’s influence in the sector, the country’s mission to redress the social ills of the former state on black South Africans stands a better chance of success. Private sector resources can be effectively mobilized to improve the social state of previously disadvantaged South Africans. However, given the economic dominance of the private sector and its former role in the apartheid era in South Africa; too much state influence in a supposedly free market can result in corporate resistance and consequently, market failure which can be seen as result of political interference. ItemInstitutionalising the evaluation function: A South African study of impartiality, use and cost(Elsevier, 2019-05-03) Caitlin, Blaser Mapitsa; Dr Takunda, ChirauPurpose: This article explores the implications of outsourcing the evaluation function in South Africa, a context where there is a mismatch between evaluation supply and demand. It unpacks the tradeoffs between internal and external evaluation, and challenges some commonly held assumptions about both. Approach: Based on experiences as an internal evaluator, external evaluator, evaluation manager, and building evaluation capacity, the author explores how each role changes when evaluation is a scarce skill, and looks at implications outsourcing has for both the organization, and the evaluation. Findings: The purpose of the evaluation must drive the decision to outsource. However, with changing models of collaboration, there may be hybrid options that allow organizations to build evaluation capacity. Practical implications: Organisations are faced with a trade-off between commissioning an evaluation, and building internal evaluation capacity. To better understand each approach, it is important to consider the purpose and context of the evaluation. This shifts some commonly held assumptions about internal and external evaluations. Re-examining these assumptions will help organizations make a more informed decision about an evaluation approach. Originality/value: The field of evaluation is particularly concerned with evaluation use. Most of the literature on this has focused on the approach of individual evaluators, and insufficient attention has been paid to the institutional architecture of the evaluation. This article considers how some of the organisational structures around an evaluation contribute to evidence use, and the case study of South Africa also shifts the focus to the central but overlooked role of context in the debate. ItemCan massive open online courses fill African evaluation capacity gaps?(African Evaluation Journal, 2019-06-26) Caitlin, Blaser Mapitsa; Linda, Khumalo; Hermine, Engel; Dominique, WooldridgeTheory of Change for Development is a free online course developed at an African institution to strengthen evaluation capacity in the region. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) provide a platform for building skills at scale in the region. Scholars of evaluation have long pointed to a gap between supply and demand that frustrates both evaluation practitioners and commissioners. This article explores the possibilities and limitations of MOOCs to bridge this gap. ItemEvaluation 2 – Evaluating the national evaluation system in South Africa: What has been achieved in the first 5 years?(African Evaluation Journal, 2019-08-28) Ian, Goldman; Carol N., Deliwe; Stephen, Taylor; Zeenat, Ishmail; Laila R., Smith; Thokozile, Masangu; Christopher, Adams; Gillian, Wilson; Dugan, Fraser; Annette, Griessel; Cara, Waller; Siphesihle, Dumisa; Alyna, Wyatt; Jamie, RobertsenSouth Africa has pioneered national evaluation systems (NESs) along with Canada, Mexico, Colombia, Chile, Uganda and Benin. South Africa’s National Evaluation Policy Framework (NEPF) was approved by Cabinet in November 2011. An evaluation of the NES started in September 2016. ItemThe effect of Public procurement on the functioning of a National Evaluation Systems: The case of South Africa(International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanity Studies, 2020-01) Dr. Kithatu-Kiwekete, Angelita; Dr. Phillips, SeanThe practice of evaluation is gaining importance across governments in Africa. Country-driven evaluation should enhance the government’s capacity for accountability, knowledge management, performance, as well as improved decision making. Countries that have implemented national evaluation systems include Benin, Uganda, and South Africa. Emerging research tends to focus on methodologies or sector-specific aspects of evaluation. This article examines the specific challenge of public procurement for conducting evaluations as knowledge-based services. The article is based on a baseline study. The methodology for the study involved a literature review; in-depth interviews; focus groups with government officials, evaluation suppliers, trainers, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs); a root-cause analysis workshop; and an online survey with both clients and suppliers. The findings are that the quality of government procurement and supply chain management is a major factor that affects the supply of evaluators. The article concludes by offering recommendations to enhance the process of public procurement. ItemIs Programme Evaluation the same as Social Impact Measurement?(Journal of Social Entrepreneurship, 2020-01-08) Tsotsotso, KhotsoThis study provides an analysis of the practical and theoretical differences in Social Impact Measurements (SIM)–as defined and is core to Impact Investing–and Programme Evaluation (PE) used in Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E). The study is the result of an inspiring effort to converge experiences of both Impact Investment practitioners and investment managers, with those of Programme Evaluators and M&E specialists. A meeting during the AEA’s (American Evaluation Association) ImpaCon conference in Atlanta in 2017. The effort was to facilitate co-learning in order to improve and grow the Impact Investing industry. The study analyses qualitative survey responses from a purposively selected panel of experts including: experienced SIM practitioners and scholars,impact investment managers, programme evaluators and evaluation scholars. Responses are deductively analysed to provide thematic reactions to the research questions. Even though there is a common theoretical intent to determine intervention worth in both SIM and PE, and a common adherence to principles of evaluative thinking; the study concludes that there are clear theoretical and practical differences in participatory and utilisation approach, efficiency and rigour.