ItemMotivation of Chinese Commercial Banks for Foreign Venturing(2016) Wang, GuanhuaABSTRACT Over the past few years, the Chinese banking industry has been recording tremendous growth. As a result, many scholars have focused on topics that explain the growth of commercial banks in China. The main aim of this study is to explore the motivation of Chinese commercial banks for foreign investment (cross-border expansion). There are three objectives of the study which include establishing the major success factors in terms of the globalisation strategy of leading international banks, such as HSBC and CITI, determining the major differences in terms of the motivation and operations for the ‘going overseas’ strategy between leading multinational banks and top Chinese banks, and assessing likely methods for and the direction of Chinese banks’ overseas operation. The set of drivers of banking institutions in obtaining a share of the market overseas are one of the areas that was examined in the literature review. Some of the drivers include the blending of Chinese and international cultures, especially the Western culture. Relevant government policies which are in favour of foreign investment are also drivers for commercial banks’ investment overseas. Success factors of leading international banks are also covered in detail. The literature review of the study entails the various strategies that Chinese commercial banks have adopted for their success in international businesses as well as the challenges and differences of international and Chinese banks. The theories that underpinned this study are internalisation theory and eclectic paradigm. The study adopted a mixed method to collect information from the sampled population. 100 respondents’ inputs were used for the quantitative analysis while the qualitative analysis relied on 20 respondents who were selected from the employees of international banks for detailed interrogation. The study concludes that the growth of Chinese commercial banks has increased, as well as their venture in the international markets. It was concluded iii that mergers and acquisitions, organisational restructuring and increased government support are some of the drivers of Chinese commercial banks towards venturing abroad. The study also concluded that key challenges Chinese banks faced in international markets are communication barriers and increases in restrictions in the developed countries. The recommendations made on the way forward include an increase in training for the management in terms of international bank management prerequisites and reduced government interference with commercial bank operations. This study recommends conducting a study which utilises secondary information and the inclusion of more Chinese commercial banks as a case study. ItemSupplier identification and inbound logistics management for an African lingerie brand.(2018) Nyawade, Cheryl HoresiaEXECUTIVE SUMMARY This is a consultancy project that is focussed on the supplier identification of an African lingerie brand using the traditional method of sending out a request for proposal to selected manufacturers as compared to the modern method of using e-procurement portals. The report starts off by giving data that encourages the need for the creation of more African brand names in the continent and globally. This notion discourages the re-selling of international brands while promoting the creation of local brands across all industries in the continent. The report further gives insight into the manufacturing industry and the evolution advancements that have been witnessed. I decided to focus on the fashion industry, specifically within the intimate apparel sector. I chose to perform our research based on the start-up company Ressiers, which is based in Kenya, East Africa as my case study. Ressiers is a company that is looking to identify suppliers and manufactures who will assist in the design, manufacturing and delivery of its upmarket lingerie brand. Their goal is to come up with cutting-edge designs that are comfortable, and custom made to the African woman’s shape and skin tone. I therefore take a detailed look at the fashion industry, analysing traits and exploring concepts such as lean retailing in order to reduce costs while simultaneously managing to meet the demand by staying relevant in the industry. The report employs both traditional and modern supplier identification methodologies, and analyses the benefits, quality of responses as well as the pros and cons of using either one of the supplier identification methods. I then conclude by outlining a methodology that will assist future start-ups within the intimate apparel industry in efficiently identifying and sourcing suppliers globally who will produce their merchandise. The findings will also help start-ups to build strong business relationships that will help them envision the creation of a legacy African brand name product. ItemLeadership, colleague support, reward & recognition as antecedents of employee work engagement at Bathopele Platinum Mine(2017) Moyana, ShephardABSTRACT The level of work engagement (dedication, vigour, concentration) by employees has an important effect on their job performance and ultimately the profitability of a business. The Platinum mining industry has been subjected to low commodity prices and safety challenges therefore requires engaged employees who do their work with all their effort in order to meet production and safety targets. This research examined factors that affect the employees work engagement at Bathopele Platinum Mine, with a special focus on the effect of leadership, reward, recognition and social support. A survey was administered whereby employees were given a questionnaire with structured questions that measured their perception on these factors. The total number of usable questionnaires was 122. The data was analysed using Multiple Regression Analysis. Leadership and reward were found to play an insignificant role in motivating employees to be engaged. However, recognition and colleague support were found to be the major drivers of employee work engagement at Bathopele mine. In an underground mining environment where safety of employees and production are crucial factors for profitability, recognising the efforts the employees put in their job performances can lead to an engaged workforce. Mine management can put in place programmes that foster teamwork in order to have engaged employees who meet their production targets safely. ItemTowards an integrative supply chain performance measurement model: A case study of Vivo Energy lubricants(2018) Muputisi, MosesABSTRACT This research presents the use of a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) based approach for equitable performance evaluation of supply chain partners in today’s increasingly global, complex and extended supply chains. A case study company is analysed to validate the proposed shortcomings of current performance measurement approaches and hence qualify the need for an alternative approach that promotes integration and collaboration. An alternative DEA based supply chain performance measurement approach, which addresses the extended nature of the supply chain, is proposed and demonstrated. Through the case study, DEA is proven to overcome the shortcomings of existing approaches and exhibit most of the attributes of an effective supply chain performance evaluation tool. The proposed method can help supply chain managers make better trade-off and benchmarking decisions across the supply chain as a whole thereby minimizing potential conflicts that emanate from localized decision making. ItemPredictors of customer experience within retail banking in South Africa(2018) Kala, Sacheen UdaiABSTRACT Purpose: The context of business, specifically banking, has fundamentally shifted in that customers are seeking not only basic product and service offerings, but value adding experiences throughout their engagements. Extensive literature in marketing describes this phenomenon; however there is a lack of empirical evidence relating to customer experience and its predictors in the South African retail banking industry. The primary objective of this research is to investigate the predictor effects of select independent variables, namely service quality, customer satisfaction, brand relationships and brand loyalty on customer experience. Design/Methodology/Approach: An empirical quantitative study was conducted, where banking customers‟ perceptions of service quality, customer satisfaction, brand relationships, brand loyalty and customer experience were assessed. The sample consisted of 151 retail banking customers, from across all major banks, in South Africa, including some smaller institutions. A regression analysis was conducted to assess the relationships between the presumed predictors and customer experience. Findings: The results have shown positive predictor effects on customer experience for three independent variables, namely, service quality, customer satisfaction and brand loyalty. These findings suggest that quality services, satisfied customers and brand loyalty can be regarded as predictors of a customer‟s experience. The relationship between brand relationships and customer experience was not supported by the results. Implications: Banks should focus on delivering superior customer experiences through service quality and customer satisfaction. The net promoter score can be used to predict customer experience; however it is not the ultimate measure. This paper provides strategies to assist banks in South Africa to be more „customer-centric‟ and to design relevant experiences. Originality/Value: There is a lack of evidence in literature focusing exclusively on customer experience within retail banks in South Africa. This research is beneficial to both academia and business as it aims to unpack and understand the complexities around customer experience management. ItemEmployee-owned companies : a potential solution to minimising industrial action in South Africa(2018) Sebesho, Bonga MphoThe purpose of this research was to assess the employee-owned company model as a potential solution to minimise industrial action in South Africa. Employee ownership, positioned as a key pillar of broad-based black economic empowerment (BBBEE) (Mosai & Reynolds, 2003), is linked to increased employee participation and ultimately to improved industrial relations as a result of increased engagement between employers and employees. Research was undertaken through a study of the multiple methods in which employee ownership is implemented across various industries in South Africa taking into account the reasons for the implementation of employee ownership. This research attempted to cover a wide spectrum of employee ownership models ranging from once-off employee share ownership schemes (ESOPs) to closed employee ownership schemes. Qualitative data was collected through in-depth interviews, utilising the Delphi technique, with a sample of 11 respondents who have been involved in the implementation of employee ownership schemes. The data was content-analysed and the findings suggested that employee ownership has the ability to engender increased participation. The findings of the study suggest that the successful implementation of employee ownership in South Africa has been severely impacted by historical issues relating to financial preparedness from employees and the deep entrenchment of the shareholder value as well as the compliance burden from a business perspective. The study concludes that employee ownership can play a role in engendering meaningful economic participation and consequently reduce the incidence of industrial action. However, in order to achieve its desired objective the government will need to put in place effective incentives as well as powerful disincentives to encourage implementation of long term ownership schemes. iii This study may provide guidance to South African companies, government and other stakeholders seeking to find broad-based and inclusive models in order to increase employee representation and participation in corporate decision-making. The research findings may assist these organisations to find new ways to create a more inclusive economic environment through leveraging the benefits of employee ownership to decrease the incidence of industrial action and ultimately improve output ItemRealising Benefits from IT Projects at Barclays Africa Corporate and Investment Banking(2018) Leseyane, Silindile PortiaEXECUTIVE SUMMARY Before committing to any Information Technology (IT)-based solution, a business needs to know whether the transformation effort (cost) can be justified relative to the perceived future value that this change will bring. Often projects are undertaken with a stated objective but this undertaking can come with significant risk to the organisation when making investments that will not realise material benefits. That is why Benefits Management (BM) is essential for any organisation to undertake as it ensures that the right investments are made that will realise business value. Corporate and Investment Banking (CIB), a division of Barclays Africa Group Limited (BAGL) is interested in implementing a Benefits Management (BM) programme in order to realise benefits from investments in IT projects. The reason for this is that banks spend millions of Rands on IT projects and yet projects have a high failure rate, possibly due to rudimentary cost benefit analysis and failure to do any post-implementation analysis to determine whether the project delivered what was expected. The goal of this research project was to establish what the current practices to realise benefits were at CIB, and, based on these findings, to provide recommendations. Research was conducted through a critical analysis of the existing BM literature, followed by interviews with various senior stakeholders during November and December 2017 and in-depth analysis of project documents such as Business Cases (BCs), minutes, governance documents, etc. to understand the BM process. Four dimensions to BM arose as themes during the research; namely, a technical perspective, a governance perspective, organisational context and user context. This indicated that a BM solution would need to cater to the specifics of each of these dimensions; otherwise the adoption of any BM intervention would not be successful. ItemPerceptions on the outlook for the securitisation market in South Africa(2018) Dhliwayo, PatienceThe sophisticated financing technique, securitisation, was blamed for the global financial crisis of 2007 -2008. After the crisis, the securitisation industry suffered globally as the number of issuances dwindled. Today, the USA and Europe securitisation markets have recovered as a result of support from the Central Banks, but the securitisation market in South Africa has not experienced a similar trend. The purpose of this research was to gather the views and opinions of key market participants on the development of securitisations in South Africa. This research, qualitative in nature, was conducted through semi-structured interviews with market participants who included: originators, both bank and nonbank lenders, arrangers, credit rating agencies, trustees and investors. The results revealed that securitisation is an important financing technique and is still very useful in the South African economy. The downward trend in securitisation activity that began during the global financial crisis has somewhat continued because the market faces a few constraints. The market participants identified the constraints to growth as being the lack of education by investors on asset-backed securities, the conservative approach by credit rating agencies, the outdated securitisation regulations and the absence of a secondary market for securitisation paper. As long as these issues are not addressed, the market participants do not expect growth in securitisation activity. ItemEmerging business models exploiting the Internet of Things : a critical qualitative review of the literature with an emphasis on South Africa(2018) Grabe, Jarrod DanielABSTRACT The Internet of Things (IoT), or the connection of everyday objects to data-sharing networks, is widely viewed as the next stage in the development of the Internet. This analysis, therefore, presents a wide-ranging evidence-based analysis of existing and potential business models designed to capitalize on this new development utilizing a systematic review methodology grounded in Rogers' (2010) diffusion of innovations theory, based on the research question: How might current and potential business models be adapted to exploit the opportunities (and minimize the risks) posed by IoT in the near to medium terms? In addition to exploring contexts and emerging tools, the report considers distinct case studies of IoT applications that might be indicative of future developments. Data collection was performed using database searches of academic and industry literatures; after sampling, data was subjected to thematic content analysis. ItemFactors affecting the implementation of a Balanced Scorecard in a South African financial organisation(2018) Banjo, Olanrewaju IsimemeThe research carried out in this paper sought to identify the factors that promote or hinder the implementation of the Balanced Scorecard within the South African financial industry. The literature review explained the role of the Balanced Scorecard in mapping out and implementing corporate strategies via identification, monitoring and measurement of quantitative and non-quantitative factors that enhance corporate performance, and thereafter, described ten factors that promote and ten factors that hinder the successful implementation of the Balanced Scorecard within companies. The researcher conducted 12 structured interviews of stakeholders of the Balanced Scorecard in a South African financial organisation for the purpose of extrapolating evidence used in reaching conclusions contained in this report. A quantitative analysis of the responses and findings from these interviews was performed and the themes discovered provided the researcher with better knowledge of the factors that promote or hinder the successful implementation of the Balanced Scorecard. The research findings indicate that obtaining effective top management commitment, agile organisational culture, identification of BSC objectives, effective communication style of management and linking BSC scores with the reward system are the five most critical factors that can impact the effectiveness or otherwise of the Balanced Scorecard to achieve its purpose within financial organisations. Further findings are explained in the research. The outcome of this research therefore provides ample evidence to company directors, managers and other stakeholders of factors that require their focused efforts to stimulate the successful implementation of the Balanced Scorecard. It equally indicates other factors that hinder the Balanced Scorecard from fulfilling its promises of strategy formulation and alignment, as a means of improving overall corporate performance of South African financial institutions. ItemMarket entry strategies into Nigeria for South African banks(2018) Bayode, Onemhinye IriataThe strategic goals of the top four banks in South Africa include expansion plans into the rest of Africa. Nigeria is the largest economy in Africa and its banking sector is the second largest behind South Africa. These factors, along with the growing middle class consumer sector makes Nigeria an attractive investment destination for South African banks. Executive management teams grapple with internationalisation strategies. The process of analysing institutional context of the target country, determining the right entry strategy and creating the appropriate business model to ensure profitability can be daunting. The purpose of this research was to identify and describe the market entry strategies adopted by South African banks that have launched operations in Nigeria, to analyse the internal and external factors that influenced the entry strategy selected, the methods used by South African banks to gain competitive advantage upon entry and the challenges faced in implementing the entry strategy. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews with executives of the top four banks in South Africa, the president of the South Africa Nigeria Chamber of Commerce was also interviewed along with management consultants with experience in the banking sector in Nigeria and South Africa. The research findings showed that the key drivers for the expansion of South African banks into Nigeria are market saturation in South Africa, the largely unbanked population in Nigeria and the strategic objectives of the relevant banks to be recognised brands across Africa. The study found that external factors such as the regulatory framework and not internal factors like workforce skills or operating model influenced the decision whether to enter the market as a wholly owned subsidiary or joint venture (JV). Respondents indicated that they did not follow Porter (1998) generic strategies for achieving competitive advantage through cost leadership, product differentiation or focus, but rather preferred to compete on customer service. iii Another key finding was that banks which entered the market as wholly owned subsidiaries as opposed to a joint venture tend to be at a disadvantage at the initial stages due to limited brand presence. Finally, although South African banks have structured models for formulating the entry strategy, most banks struggle with the execution of the strategy. Some of the key challenges faced in implementing market entry strategy in Nigeria is the onerous regulatory landscape and the volatile market due to dependence of the Nigerian economy on the oil and gas sector. Also, the rigid internal operating model of some South African banks impacted the speed of delivery to customers. This research concludes by proposing a framework for the realisation of strategic objectives of South African banks launching into Nigeria. The framework suggests that the establishment of capabilities such as regulatory acumen, local partnerships, customer intimacy, socio-cultural integration and robust operating model is critical to the success of South African banks launching into Nigeria. ItemThe sustainability challenge of business in South Africa(2018) Kramer, DianeSince the 1800’s the world has seen rapid population growth and even faster economic growth. Higher living standards are linked to improvements in life expectancy for billions of people. However, these perceived benefits come at a cost, where this progress highlights that humanities production and consumption patterns are exceeding the planets supply limits; and therefore unsustainable. (Nedbank, 2014). This growing concern around the consumption and production behaviour of humanity is described in the literature as a concern to find equilibrium between the three pillars of sustainability; economic, social and environmental. Satisfying the needs and wants of humanity is a daunting challenge in light of population growth, depletion of irreplaceable resources, climate change, poverty, the lack of energy, water and access to minimum basic services. Longterm sustainability, shared value creation and an urgent response to climate change are emerging as key imperatives to consider when providing for the needs and wants of 7.4 billion people (and at an effective rate). Over the past two decades, a shift in business strategy has emerged, moving from that of a narrow view focusing on the individual corporate economic mandate of growing profits for shareholders, to a broader view, which encompasses social and environmental shared value creation. This new approach is to create equilibrium between the three pillars of sustainability. Numerous definitions and methodologies have emerged over the past 50 years of how business is supposed to achieve this balance, which in itself has created a divergent and slow response to long term holistic sustainability. The research therefore sought to identify the response of the largest South African companies to the sustainability challenges of climate change and the warnings for assuring sustainability on the planet; where global warming is slowed down to 2C within the next 15 years, whilst remaining competitive in the market place. From the review of literature, common key sustainable development (SD) drivers and activities are identified to achieving sustainability. Some of the common social drivers emerging from the literature are; fair and compliant governance, leadership, innovation, corporate culture and its evolution into corporate citizenship and individual behaviour change. Some of the common environmental drivers emerging from the literature are climate change and global warming, biodiversity protection, innovation and renewables, energy, water, and waste. The concern for business is to overcome the insufficient time remaining to mitigate the impact of population growth and to find the global solutions to create sustainability between people, profit and planet. The literature highlights perceptions around upfront costs of SD activity, which are argued as having either a positive or negative impact on company profits. The research report therefore investigated if there is a relationship between SD and economic performance and if that relationship is positive or negative. The research therefore focused on understanding if the largest companies operating in South Africa are succeeding in their attempt to mitigate negative impacts of production and consumption behaviour, to reduce long-term costs, understand risks and improve impact, whilst remaining competitive in the market place. This research report resulted in identifying a negative relationship between corporate SD activity and Return of Net Assets (RONA). This could be attributed to many factors or combinations of them, which are discussed in the results section of the research. However, it is clear from this research that relying on the scenario of ‘business as usual’ presents undeniable risks. The most likely explanation for this negative relationship is that more time and research is required to fully measure and understand the impacts of social and environmental change. The true impact of corporate SD change has not yet had enough time to yield a conclusive result and therefore its true value to creating balance between the pillars of sustainability could be underestimated. Therefore, the main recommendation from this research, even though the results proved a negative relationship between economic performance and SD, is that the academic view that business takes seriously the first mover advantage by adopting sustainable development activities throughout their value chain and to shift their view from narrow to shared-value, is supported. Leaders must embrace sustainability as the most important imperative facing the short and long-term outlook for their business and humanity. If not, the results could be disastrous for current and future generations, ultimately affecting the balance between all three pillars of sustainability and economic profit long-term. Sustainable development should therefore be embraced into the DNA of the business culture, as the main driver of economic performance and not pushed aside as a compliance cost on the short-term bottom line. In conclusion, shifting the business focus from a narrow view of shareholder profitability to the broader view of shared-value creation is required. Fulfilling this recommendation will help create a viable planet, able to provide the needs and wants of current and future generations. ItemPerceived determinants of effective employee engagement in a South African bank(2018) Holder, Kerry-LeeEmployee engagement is a relatively new concept which has come to prominence because of its link to individual performance and organisational success. About a decade ago the Gallup Organisation developed the Q12 survey to measure employee engagement and this caused a spike of interest in the topic, with research showing a decline in employee engagement. This highlights the importance of this research in identifying how employee engagement can be enhanced. Little is known about the factors that promote employee engagement in large bureaucratic organisations, like banks, and whether certain factors have a greater impact on employee engagement than others. Currently, in the bank in which the research was conducted, too much attention has been paid to the mechanical process of performance management rather than employee engagement and the willingness of employees to perform. This research aimed to identify the factors that promote employee engagement in a large bureaucratic organisation, namely a bank, and to discover which of these factors are perceived to have the greatest impact on employee engagement. Twelve in-depth structured interviews were held and a themed content analysis was conducted through which common themes and factors were derived. Ten factors were identified and ranked by the respondents as having the greatest impact on employee engagement. The results of this study highlight the factors that contribute the most to employee engagement. The top three factors found to have the greatest impact on employee engagement are: reward and recognition; coaching, social support, good leadership and an environment that nurtures trust and collaboration; and employees feel valued and are treated fairly with respect and dignity. The results of this study provide guidance to organisations by way of a list of factors that managers can use to improve employee engagement. All the factors should be considered, but special attention should be paid to the top three factors identified in this study. ItemAn analysis of the remuneration of CEOs of JSE listed companies in South Africa in relation to company performance(2018)Following recent crises in both the global and South African economy, the spotlight has turned to the seemingly exorbitant remuneration packages earned by CEOs. These packages often contain large bonuses, which are seen, by the general public, as being paid regardless of company performance. This research, therefore, seeks to describe the relationship between the remuneration that CEOs receive and the performance of the company. This study tests the relationship between company performance and both the total package as well as the proportion of the package that is linked to performance. As CEO remuneration is required to be reported for all JSE listed companies, a full analysis of the remuneration of CEOs for the top 40 JSE listed companies can be performed. In this study, company performance is measured by means of EBITDA, EPS, and ROCE to provide an indication of income, shareholder value and the creation of value respectively. Performing a correlation and regression analysis reveals that there is a significant but weak relationship between CEO remuneration and EBITDA, but not with EPS and ROCE. Possible reasons for this relationship include the ability of the CEO to influence the income in the short term, whereas EPS and ROCE may require longer terms to show visible effect. This suggests that in a period of approximately 5 years, the level and composition of CEO remuneration is only related to short term, income based company performance. Shareholders that wish to incentivize CEOs should, therefore, look to factors other than remuneration based on these high level company performance metrics. ItemThird party logictics in the retail industry in South Africa(2018) Chiyasa, Linus BatisaniThird Party Logistics (3PL), is the implementation of all or part of logistics functions by a service provider on behalf of another party on contract basis. This sector has steadily grown in capacity and expertise as more business worldwide outsource their logistics functions to 3PL service providers (3PL’s). Businesses engage 3PL’s so that they can focus on their core business, to reduce costs or to avert risks, all as a strategy to gain a competitive edge in the market. However some businesses opt to execute all their logistics functions in-house, using their own resources and expertise. They assert that the control they have of their supply chain(s) makes them more efficient and respond quicker to the business requirements. This research looks at the status of 3PL in South Africa, investigating the drivers for its use in the retail sector in the country. It also considers those companies that run their logistics inhouse, to determine the reasons for choosing to implement their logistics functions in-house. The research was conducted through the collection of primary data from one-on-one interviews with logistics executives. The interviews were based on a pre-determined questions framework based on the propositions to be interrogated. The research found that most of the respondents used 3PL service providers for some or all of their logistics functions. The functions that are being outsourced to 3PL’s are largely transportation and warehousing. This is despite the service providers offering other functions under the logistics domain. From the results of the research, most of the transportation is executed through 3PL service providers while warehousing is mainly implemented in-house. Besides using 3PL or executing logistics inhouse, companies use hybrid combinations for both transportation and warehousing. Thus part of each function is outsourced to 3PL while the rest is done in-house. The businesses in South Africa are basing their decisions for outsourcing logistics on the same drivers as those observed in other markets globally. The main driver for using 3PL is related to cost savings and hence gaining a competitive edge in the market. The basis for implementing logistics in-house was also found to be reducing costs and being able to control the logistics function(s) to their advantage. This is in line with the international trends on the phenomenon. ItemAn analysis of income inequality between BRICS and G7 countries(2018) Sookroo, SashinStudies on income inequality have largely focused on deriving Concept 3 inequality, focusing on global studies. This paper analyses Concept 1 inequality between BRICS and G7 countries and Concept 2 inequality between BRICS and G7 groups, from 1993-2003. The paper used secondary data obtained from the World Bank databases and tracked year-on-year changes, over the 20 year period. The paper found that USA, Canada, the UK and Germany increased the most in terms of dollar value of GDP per capita. In terms of GDP percentage change, China, India, Russia and Brazil increased the most. The USA, Canada, Germany and the UK increased the most in terms of dollar value of GNI per capita and in percentage change in GNI per capita China, India, Russia and Brazil increased the most. In addition, the paper also found that there is a convergence of income that was observed between BRICS and G7 and even when China or China and India where excluded from the BRICS definition, Brazil, Russia and South Africa’s income per capita increased faster than G7’s income per capita; although G7’s real dollar value growth is larger than BRICS, BRICS excluding China and BRICS excluding China and India. It was recommended that governments need to monitor changes in income inequality, understand drivers of income per capita and adopt approaches used by high income per capita growth countries. In addition, although a convergence is observed between BRICS and G7; more work needs to be done to reduce income inequality by governments, international regulatory bodies and policy makers. Further, economic modelling needs to be revisited to understand how income inequality has changed and will change in future between countries and/or groups of interest. Lastly, organisations with global interests must understand the benefits of increasing income in foreign operations and the impact on productivity and organisation value. ItemWomen entrepreneurship in South Africa : motivations, challenges and ways to improve conditions(2018) Mushoma, TsireledzoEntrepreneurship has been highlighted as one of the leading contributors to economic growth through job creation and increase in innovation. However, entrepreneurs must overcome barriers such as the lack of finance which usually threaten the survival of their ventures. Previous studies have shown that women entrepreneurs are the worst-affected. They face additional barriers such as cultural values that discourage women entrepreneurship and gender discrimination. The purpose of this research is therefore to explore the motivating factors and challenges of South African women entrepreneurs, and how the nuanced understanding of motivating factors and challenges can be used to improve the state of women entrepreneurship in South Africa, and consequently engender women to actively venture into entrepreneurship. Interviews with women entrepreneurs were conducted to get an in-depth understanding of the entrepreneurial conditions, primarily focusing on barriers women face, factors motivating women to venture into entrepreneurship, and ways to improve conditions for women. The results of the study show that women entrepreneurs in South Africa are motivated by job dissatisfaction, unemployment, the need for independence, need to increase income, entrepreneurial inclination and the pursuit of a hobby. Challenges that women entrepreneurs face are related to lack of access to networking opportunities, markets, funding and knowledge. Other barriers include gender discrimination and corruption. The study contributes to the field of women entrepreneurship by making recommendations about how an understanding of entrepreneurial motivation can be a useful indicator of the kind of support women entrepreneurs need. This knowledge can help improve conditions for women entrepreneurs. In the context of limited resources, efforts aimed at supporting women entrepreneurs should be effective if there is an awareness of their actual needs. ItemMarket orientation and its effect on business performance : an empirical study of the metal industry in South Africa(2018) Ntobongwana, LungeloBusiness performance is enhanced by organisations by adopting market orientation methodologies. Sustainable competitive advantage is what most organisations strive for so that they can outperform their competitors. Organisations operating in the same or similar industries gain sustainable competitive advantage, but that varies from one organisation to another. The metal industry in South Africa is the point of focus of the current study. The aim is to experimentally study how business performance is affected by market orientation. The relationship between four constructs business performance, marketing capabilities, market orientation and sustainable competitive advantage were examined. The population of the metal industry comprised of sixty three companies and this was used as a sample for the study. A total of forty seven (74.6% response rate) participants responded and data was analysed through the use of Structural Equation Modelling (Smart PLS). A structured questionnaire was used as a research instrument and an online survey was conducted for over a six week period. Data analysis on the relationship between four constructs was performed using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). Reliability, validity and path modelling was done using SEM (Smart PLS). It was determined that market orientation has a positive and direct effect on business performance; however, the effect on business performance is less significant compared to the direct effect of marketing capabilities and sustainable competitive advantage. Of the four constructs under study, sustainable competitive advantage was found to have the most significant effect on business performance. Managers and business owners are encouraged to enhance marketing capabilities in order to improve business performance. Due to the fact that sustainable competitive advantage is attained by allocating internal business resources effectively, it can be used as an organisations differentiator from its competitors and therefore enhance business performance. ItemSouth African Consumer Perceptions Of Wearable Technology(2018) Koetsie, Karen MonicaThe purpose of the study was to provide insight into the South African consumers awareness and perception of wearable devices that monitor health, sports and fitness data. The aim of this research was therefore to investigate and describe the consumers' overall perceived value of wearable technology. It set out to explore how each element of perceived benefit and risk influence the consumers' overall intentions to adopt. ItemEdge organisations as a response to Over The Top services for South African mobile network operators(2018) Watermeyer, Brett WilliamThe increased emergence of highly cost-effective, mobile OTT (Over the Top) products and services in combination with the rapidly accelerating appetite for new technologies had by most of today’s mobile user base, is leaving South Africa’s traditional MNO’s (Mobile Network Operators) in an extremely vulnerable position. There are certainly turbulent times ahead for South Africa’s MNO’s, as the new breed of organisation leverage technology and next-generation thinking to develop smart, OTT products and services, which are providing them with an edge in the market that is affording them with an opportunity to rapidly gain both traction and market share. This process of building better, faster and more convenient OTT products and services, through the implementation of new management techniques and innovative think tanks, allow these organisations to explore previously uncharted business principles and practices, all while leveraging, at an effective zero cost, infrastructure that has traditionally been under the strict control of the MNO’s. Peter Diamandis, co-author of the 6 D’s of Technological Disruption (Diamandis, 2017) predicts that three billion minds will join the global economy over the next 5 years – each of which will have an appetite for the latest generation of internet-delivered applications and technologies, which in turn will encourage innovation at an unprecedented rate. This will generate high levels of competition as companies strive to deliver new, better and faster products and services to ensure long-term sustainability. This consultancy report provides an overview of several essential characteristics of innovative disruption that are faced by today’s markets. It thereafter seeks to ascertain the potential impact that these OTT products and services are having on South Africa’s MNO’s, by assessing the South African consumer's appetite for these products and services as opposed to traditional offerings. The paper will furthermore seek to uncover the key characteristics of a sample population of the mobile consumer market and the factors that will influence these consumers. The research concludes by considering the concept of an Edge Organisation as a possible means for MNO’s to mitigate their obsolescence and maintain their relevance in the face of a rapidly evolving industry.