Wits Face Database

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dc.contributor.author Bacci, Nicholas
dc.contributor.author Davimes, Joshua
dc.contributor.author Steyn, Maryna
dc.contributor.author Briers, Nanette
dc.contributor.other Data Manager: N Bacci,
dc.coverage.spatial Braamfontein Campus of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
dc.date.accessioned 2020-10-31T18:33:18Z
dc.date.available 2020-10-31T18:33:18Z
dc.date.issued 2020-11-02
dc.identifier.uri http://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/WMA4C
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/10539/29924
dc.description.abstract The human face is important in social, cultural and recognition contexts. Many research fields make use of faces to understand human interaction and identify individuals. Studies relying on facial image data often make use of ad hoc datasets specifically created for those studies as there is a dearth of large scale controlled and matching facial image databases. Actualistic (taken in a real life, natural setting) and standardised databases of facial images can be of extreme value to many research areas, such as facial identification and recognition. While multiple face databases are available, the majority, if not all, are developed in order to address very specific questions and hypotheses with limited standardisation, severely limiting their potential applicability. The Wits Face Database was developed as a generic, yet actualistic dataset of facial images obtained from consenting young adult South African male individuals. This database consists of high resolution standardised facial photographs (3264 x 4080 pixels) and corresponding closed-circuit television (CCTV) recordings of male South Africans under different camera conditions. A total of 6220 standardised (clothing and background controlled) and natural (visible clothing and out of focus background) facial photographs of 622 matching individuals in five different views are included. Corresponding CCTV footage of 334 of these individuals is also included. Across both the CCTV recordings and the photographs, the faces were captured in five different views: anterior, left 45-degree, left lateral, right 45-degree, and right lateral. The CCTV recordings were grouped under the following actualistic conditions: a standard internet protocol (IP) CCTV set-up, a low-resolution analogue CCTV set-up, an eye-level IP CCTV system, and the standard IP CCTV set-up with the addition of sunglasses and caps for target individuals. A detailed description of the composition and acquisition process of the database will be made available in a database descriptor publication format. The database is available strictly for non-commercial scientific research following approval of a formal application, assessed by the School of Anatomical Sciences’ Collections Committee within the University of the Witwatersrand. en_ZA
dc.description.sponsorship The WFD was developed with support from the South African National Research Foundation and the J.J.J. Smieszeck Fellowship from the School of Anatomical Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand (funds awarded to N. Bacci (Grant No.: 11858) and N. Briers as part of the Improving Methodologies and Practices in Craniofacial Identification (Grant No.: CSUR160425163022; UID:106031)). Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this study are those of the authors and therefore the NRF and University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg do not accept any liability in regard thereto.” en_ZA
dc.description.statementofresponsibility Data Management Plan and Access Procedure for the Wits Face Database (WFD) Preamble The directions and procedures in this document outline the processes of curation and access for the Wits Face Database (“WFD”) belonging to the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (“University”). All procedures and directions contained in this document are in accordance with the “Conditions of Use of the WFD” document and its stipulated terms and conditions. The procedures and directions contained herein are based on the recommendations made specifically applicable to the School of Anatomical Sciences, resulting from a series of documents circulated regarding ethical approval processes for the Collections house within the School (viz a viz letter sent to the Faculty of Health Sciences on 27th February 2019 by the Assistant Dean of Research and Postgraduate Support, the circular dated 11 July 2019, updated on 22 July 2019 and finalised on 5th August 2019, National Health Act 2003, Wits Research Integrity policy and the Singapore Statement on Research Integrity (2010), DOH 2015 Ethics in Health Research Guidelines and School of Anatomical Sciences Collections Committee guidelines and policies). A detailed description of the WFD can be found at: database article DOI. To apply for access to the WFD please use the following link: Wits Libraries front-end link. Roles and Responsibilities The Editor and Co-developers of the database (N Bacci, J Davimes, M Steyn, and N Briers) have designed the database as well as captured and collated the data included in the WFD. In future, one or more of them will take on an advisory role to the Collection Committee in the application reviewing process, due to their knowledge of the database composition and privacy concerns. The raw data included in the database will be stored in a secure server in the Faculty of Health Sciences maintained and managed by Health Sciences Wits ICT (M Allen). While the server unit is under Faculty ICT, the storage hard disk drives were provided by the School of Anatomical Sciences. Future hard drives will be provided by the School as needed in the eventuality of technical failure or following expiry of the current warranty. The database metadata will be generated, attached to the actual data and curated by Wits Libraries Data Management (N Lewin) with support from the Editor and Co-developers where possible. Wits Libraries will also be involved in archiving backup copies of the database as well as functional copies for data retrieval when needed for use. The School of Anatomical Sciences Collections Committee will oversee access to the WFD and will review applications made to access the WFD to ensure best scientific and ethical practice. The above-mentioned responsibilities and roles will persist with the staff member holding the equivalent positions as the original personnel discussed. Transfer of the advisory role to the Collections Committee can be transferred by the database developers by written communication to someone deemed experienced and/or knowledgeable enough to perform said role. This data management plan will be reviewed on a biennial basis to consider any required modifications based on new technological, management, or financial developments. The review will be carried out by the Editor, Wits Libraries Data Management, Faculty of Health Sciences Wits ICT, School of Anatomical Sciences Head of School and the Collections Committee Chairperson. Type and Format of Data The database includes a series of facial photographs and CCTV recordings captured at the Braamfontein campus of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. Participants included students and staff who signed an informed consent for their participation. A total of 622 participants were photographed. Each participant had 10 photographs taken in different views and at two different distances (1.5m and 5m). The total number of unique photographs included in the database is 6220. All photographs were captured and stored both as native RAW and .jpeg formats. The effective duplication of photographs in these two formats results in 12440 images stored as part of the database. A total of 334 participants were also recorded using different CCTV cameras from the Wits Protection Services surveillance system. An approximate 30 seconds of footage was captured for each participant and extracted as .mp4 videos. The total approximate size of the database is 292 GB. Approximately 92 GB of the database consists of the CCTV footage with the remaining 200 GB being the photographs in all modes of capturing (5 views and two camera distances). Data Storage and Preservation The database in its entirety is composed of photographs (RAW and .jpeg files) and CCTV recordings (.mp4 files). These files are organised according to camera of origin and arranged by date of collection. All files will be stored as an encrypted backup on the Wits Faculty of Health Sciences (FHS) servers with no external access other than to extract additional copies solely by the Editor or the co-developers of the database. Additional copies extracted from the FHS ICT server will be transferred to the Wits Libraries Data Management who will store the database in its entirety in triplicate. The first copy will be retained as a second backup of the original data not to be accessed unless corruption or loss of data in the other copies occurs. The second copy will be a working copy where metadata relating to the individual files of the database will be associated to each file and catalogued accordingly. The third copy will be the one to be used to transfer for individual researcher access as needed following access approval has been granted. This copy will be altered to transfer the absolute minimum required for the completion of a research project and the images may be cropped, altered or edited to limit access and possible reuse as needed. All images to be transferred will be individually cryptographed using the individual researcher’s name affiliation and ORCID number to track any misuse and sharing of the data. Cryptography will be carried out using open access code in the python coding language with the aid of Wits FHS ICT and Jason Hemingway. Physical copies of the signed consent forms are kept under lock and key at the School of Anatomical Sciences. Scanned copies of these consent forms are stored as .pdf documents encrypted and on two password protected devices. They are stored separately from the database to prevent the possibility of association of personal details to the facial data of the participants. Practices for Access, Sharing and Appropriate Protection and Privacy The WFD is an open access resource for use in strictly non-commercial research. No viewing access or research may be permitted on the WFD unless authorised in writing to do so by the School of Anatomical Sciences Collections Committee and Head of School. Researchers wishing to obtain access to the WFD for research purposes must be affiliated to an academic institution for a minimum period of 6 (six) months prior to the application date. This affiliation, whether as a student or staff member of the institution, may require verification if deemed necessary by the Collections Committee. Applicants must use their institutional contact details (i.e. email address) for any communications regarding the WFD. These contact details must be verifiable as belonging or being affiliated to the institution. Applicants wishing to make use of the WFD must submit their request in writing to the Editor and the Collections Committee. The application must include: 1. a succinct research protocol, outlining the aim of the study, the procedures and processes to be employed in collecting data, and specifying the type and quantity of images and/or recordings required as well as how the results will be disseminated and how long data generated will be preserved; 2. a completed application form; 3. a signed copy of this Conditions of Use agreement with name, surname and detailed affiliations of all persons applying for use; 4. external applicants (from outside Wits University) must submit proof of ethical clearance approval from their own institution; 5. if the research is for the purposes of a post-graduate degree, evidence of approval of the project proposal from the student’s institution must be submitted The Collections Committee and Editor will review the application in its entirety and anonymously to determine the scientific and ethical merit of the intended research project in order to recommend granting the School’s blanket ethics waiver to the Head of School (HoS). The HoS is the legal custodian of all collections housed within the School, including the WFD, and is authorised to grant the ethics waiver. An application can be approved with no changes, approved subject to minor adjustments, requiring re-submission with major edits, or rejected. Successful applicants will be informed of the status of the application and will be provided with an ethics template for completion. The ethics template accompanied by a letter from the HoS indicating that he/she has approved the ethics waiver for the study, will be sent to the chair of the Human Research Ethics Committee (Medical) bi-annually for each project approved within the School that makes use of a collection, including the WFD. Once the Applicant has submitted the ethics template, they will be provided directions on how to access the component of the WFD relevant to their study. The component of the database to which access has been granted will be separated and prepared for transfer as an encrypted file over a secure connection. The encryption key will be disclosed separately and secretly to the User. Reuse, Distribution, and Derivatives All Intellectual Property rights in the WFD are owned by the University. The facial images and/or recordings of the Participants may not under any circumstances whatsoever be published in any form (e.g. published journal article, news article, thesis/dissertation, conference podium or poster presentation etc.). The WFD/part thereof: 1. may not be reproduced and/or publicized in any form or nature; 2. the images and/or recordings and the associated metadata, included in the WFD must not be reproduced without prior written consent of the University and the Collections Committee, which consent may be withheld in University’s sole discretion; 3. the distribution of any constituents of the WFD to any third party is prohibited; and 4. the distribution of any constituents of the WFD for commercial purposes is prohibited; Subject to compliance with the terms and conditions of the Conditions of Use document, users are, for the period of access approved by the Collections Committee granted a temporary, non-exclusive, revocable, non-transferable licence to access and to use the WFD/part thereof solely for non-commercial research purposes. Such license follows and abides by the terms and conditions of the WFD and may not be sub-licenced, assigned, pledged, encumbered or otherwise transferred by the User, voluntarily or involuntarily, by operation of law or otherwise, without University’s prior written consent, which consent may be withheld in University’s sole discretion, and any attempt to do so in violation of this Agreement will be without legal effect and void in terms of this Agreement. Users must comply with all applicable legislation including but not limited to the provisions of the Data Protection Legislation governing the collection, use and processing of Personal Information as defined in Protection of Personal Information Act 4 of 2013 (POPI). The data on the WFD is provided "as is", and the University assumes no responsibility for errors or omissions. The User assumes the entire risk associated with its use of these data. The University shall not be held liable for any use or misuse of the data described and/or contained herein. The User bears all responsibility in determining whether these data is fit for the User's intended use. Any screenshots, photographs, reproductions or any other information (hereafter referred to as “Data”) obtained from the original facial images and/or recordings belongs to the University. This includes, but is not limited to, data generated through the study of the WFD/part thereof. Data may not be made available on any Internet website, ftp-site, or any other similar public access point. Users must not process Personal Information/data obtained from the study of any part of/the whole WFD for any purpose other than in terms of the approved research project, without the express written permission of the Collections Committee. The distribution of data to any third party by users is not permitted. Any third-party requesting access to the data obtained through a study of the WFD, by a previous user must submit a written request to said User as well as the Collections Committee. Each request will be addressed in an ad hoc manner by the Editor and the Collections Committee. On completion of the research work, the user undertakes to ensure that copies of all Data and research outputs or part thereof whether in his/her possession or not, is immediately handed over to the Editor. Users may not keep copies of the raw data/WFD, delete remove or in any way interfere with the University’s Intellectual Property without permission of the Collections Committee. The School reserves the right to use any of these Data in future research and teaching projects. Users will be allowed a moratorium period of maximum 2 (two) years to complete the research goals (i.e. publication, dissertation etc.). After which the Data will be made available for use for competing research projects or teaching. If the user is not able to complete the project within this time period, then the user must submit a progress report stipulating all limiting challenges in conjunction with a completion plan. This WFD may not in any shape or form be incorporated into any semi- or fully automated facial recognition/detection system. It may, however, be used to test the efficacy of non-commercial systems for face recognition and face detection. All Participants included in this database must be referred to by the commonly accepted terminology and they may not be discussed in any derogatory way. Under no circumstances may any Data not strictly belonging to consenting Participants of the study be used for research of any kind. Any passer-by or unintentionally recorded individual’s facial or other data may not be used for any purpose, including research. No image or video data may be published in any format or any platform if originating from the WFD, regardless of modifications. If a scientific publication results through unauthorised actions of the User and/or Third Party for which approval was not granted in writing by the Collections Committee, the relevant journal/publisher will be notified of this and the journal/publisher will be requested to remove the publication from their issues.
dc.description.statementofresponsibility Data Management Plan and Access Procedure for the Wits Face Database (WFD) Preamble The directions and procedures in this document outline the processes of curation and access for the Wits Face Database (“WFD”) belonging to the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (“University”). All procedures and directions contained in this document are in accordance with the “Conditions of Use of the WFD” document and its stipulated terms and conditions. The procedures and directions contained herein are based on the recommendations made specifically applicable to the School of Anatomical Sciences, resulting from a series of documents circulated regarding ethical approval processes for the Collections house within the School (viz a viz letter sent to the Faculty of Health Sciences on 27th February 2019 by the Assistant Dean of Research and Postgraduate Support, the circular dated 11 July 2019, updated on 22 July 2019 and finalised on 5th August 2019, National Health Act 2003, Wits Research Integrity policy and the Singapore Statement on Research Integrity (2010), DOH 2015 Ethics in Health Research Guidelines and School of Anatomical Sciences Collections Committee guidelines and policies). A detailed description of the WFD can be found at: database article DOI. To apply for access to the WFD please use the following link: Wits Libraries front-end link. Roles and Responsibilities The Editor and Co-developers of the database (N Bacci, J Davimes, M Steyn, and N Briers) have designed the database as well as captured and collated the data included in the WFD. In future, one or more of them will take on an advisory role to the Collection Committee in the application reviewing process, due to their knowledge of the database composition and privacy concerns. The raw data included in the database will be stored in a secure server in the Faculty of Health Sciences maintained and managed by Health Sciences Wits ICT (M Allen). While the server unit is under Faculty ICT, the storage hard disk drives were provided by the School of Anatomical Sciences. Future hard drives will be provided by the School as needed in the eventuality of technical failure or following expiry of the current warranty. The database metadata will be generated, attached to the actual data and curated by Wits Libraries Data Management (N Lewin) with support from the Editor and Co-developers where possible. Wits Libraries will also be involved in archiving backup copies of the database as well as functional copies for data retrieval when needed for use. The School of Anatomical Sciences Collections Committee will oversee access to the WFD and will review applications made to access the WFD to ensure best scientific and ethical practice. The above-mentioned responsibilities and roles will persist with the staff member holding the equivalent positions as the original personnel discussed. Transfer of the advisory role to the Collections Committee can be transferred by the database developers by written communication to someone deemed experienced and/or knowledgeable enough to perform said role. This data management plan will be reviewed on a biennial basis to consider any required modifications based on new technological, management, or financial developments. The review will be carried out by the Editor, Wits Libraries Data Management, Faculty of Health Sciences Wits ICT, School of Anatomical Sciences Head of School and the Collections Committee Chairperson. Type and Format of Data The database includes a series of facial photographs and CCTV recordings captured at the Braamfontein campus of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. Participants included students and staff who signed an informed consent for their participation. A total of 622 participants were photographed. Each participant had 10 photographs taken in different views and at two different distances (1.5m and 5m). The total number of unique photographs included in the database is 6220. All photographs were captured and stored both as native RAW and .jpeg formats. The effective duplication of photographs in these two formats results in 12440 images stored as part of the database. A total of 334 participants were also recorded using different CCTV cameras from the Wits Protection Services surveillance system. An approximate 30 seconds of footage was captured for each participant and extracted as .mp4 videos. The total approximate size of the database is 292 GB. Approximately 92 GB of the database consists of the CCTV footage with the remaining 200 GB being the photographs in all modes of capturing (5 views and two camera distances). Data Storage and Preservation The database in its entirety is composed of photographs (RAW and .jpeg files) and CCTV recordings (.mp4 files). These files are organised according to camera of origin and arranged by date of collection. All files will be stored as an encrypted backup on the Wits Faculty of Health Sciences (FHS) servers with no external access other than to extract additional copies solely by the Editor or the co-developers of the database. Additional copies extracted from the FHS ICT server will be transferred to the Wits Libraries Data Management who will store the database in its entirety in triplicate. The first copy will be retained as a second backup of the original data not to be accessed unless corruption or loss of data in the other copies occurs. The second copy will be a working copy where metadata relating to the individual files of the database will be associated to each file and catalogued accordingly. The third copy will be the one to be used to transfer for individual researcher access as needed following access approval has been granted. This copy will be altered to transfer the absolute minimum required for the completion of a research project and the images may be cropped, altered or edited to limit access and possible reuse as needed. All images to be transferred will be individually cryptographed using the individual researcher’s name affiliation and ORCID number to track any misuse and sharing of the data. Cryptography will be carried out using open access code in the python coding language with the aid of Wits FHS ICT and Jason Hemingway. Physical copies of the signed consent forms are kept under lock and key at the School of Anatomical Sciences. Scanned copies of these consent forms are stored as .pdf documents encrypted and on two password protected devices. They are stored separately from the database to prevent the possibility of association of personal details to the facial data of the participants. Practices for Access, Sharing and Appropriate Protection and Privacy The WFD is an open access resource for use in strictly non-commercial research. No viewing access or research may be permitted on the WFD unless authorised in writing to do so by the School of Anatomical Sciences Collections Committee and Head of School. Researchers wishing to obtain access to the WFD for research purposes must be affiliated to an academic institution for a minimum period of 6 (six) months prior to the application date. This affiliation, whether as a student or staff member of the institution, may require verification if deemed necessary by the Collections Committee. Applicants must use their institutional contact details (i.e. email address) for any communications regarding the WFD. These contact details must be verifiable as belonging or being affiliated to the institution. Applicants wishing to make use of the WFD must submit their request in writing to the Editor and the Collections Committee. The application must include: 1. a succinct research protocol, outlining the aim of the study, the procedures and processes to be employed in collecting data, and specifying the type and quantity of images and/or recordings required as well as how the results will be disseminated and how long data generated will be preserved; 2. a completed application form; 3. a signed copy of this Conditions of Use agreement with name, surname and detailed affiliations of all persons applying for use; 4. external applicants (from outside Wits University) must submit proof of ethical clearance approval from their own institution; 5. if the research is for the purposes of a post-graduate degree, evidence of approval of the project proposal from the student’s institution must be submitted The Collections Committee and Editor will review the application in its entirety and anonymously to determine the scientific and ethical merit of the intended research project in order to recommend granting the School’s blanket ethics waiver to the Head of School (HoS). The HoS is the legal custodian of all collections housed within the School, including the WFD, and is authorised to grant the ethics waiver. An application can be approved with no changes, approved subject to minor adjustments, requiring re-submission with major edits, or rejected. Successful applicants will be informed of the status of the application and will be provided with an ethics template for completion. The ethics template accompanied by a letter from the HoS indicating that he/she has approved the ethics waiver for the study, will be sent to the chair of the Human Research Ethics Committee (Medical) bi-annually for each project approved within the School that makes use of a collection, including the WFD. Once the Applicant has submitted the ethics template, they will be provided directions on how to access the component of the WFD relevant to their study. The component of the database to which access has been granted will be separated and prepared for transfer as an encrypted file over a secure connection. The encryption key will be disclosed separately and secretly to the User. Reuse, Distribution, and Derivatives All Intellectual Property rights in the WFD are owned by the University. The facial images and/or recordings of the Participants may not under any circumstances whatsoever be published in any form (e.g. published journal article, news article, thesis/dissertation, conference podium or poster presentation etc.). The WFD/part thereof: 1. may not be reproduced and/or publicized in any form or nature; 2. the images and/or recordings and the associated metadata, included in the WFD must not be reproduced without prior written consent of the University and the Collections Committee, which consent may be withheld in University’s sole discretion; 3. the distribution of any constituents of the WFD to any third party is prohibited; and 4. the distribution of any constituents of the WFD for commercial purposes is prohibited; Subject to compliance with the terms and conditions of the Conditions of Use document, users are, for the period of access approved by the Collections Committee granted a temporary, non-exclusive, revocable, non-transferable licence to access and to use the WFD/part thereof solely for non-commercial research purposes. Such license follows and abides by the terms and conditions of the WFD and may not be sub-licenced, assigned, pledged, encumbered or otherwise transferred by the User, voluntarily or involuntarily, by operation of law or otherwise, without University’s prior written consent, which consent may be withheld in University’s sole discretion, and any attempt to do so in violation of this Agreement will be without legal effect and void in terms of this Agreement. Users must comply with all applicable legislation including but not limited to the provisions of the Data Protection Legislation governing the collection, use and processing of Personal Information as defined in Protection of Personal Information Act 4 of 2013 (POPI). The data on the WFD is provided "as is", and the University assumes no responsibility for errors or omissions. The User assumes the entire risk associated with its use of these data. The University shall not be held liable for any use or misuse of the data described and/or contained herein. The User bears all responsibility in determining whether these data is fit for the User's intended use. Any screenshots, photographs, reproductions or any other information (hereafter referred to as “Data”) obtained from the original facial images and/or recordings belongs to the University. This includes, but is not limited to, data generated through the study of the WFD/part thereof. Data may not be made available on any Internet website, ftp-site, or any other similar public access point. Users must not process Personal Information/data obtained from the study of any part of/the whole WFD for any purpose other than in terms of the approved research project, without the express written permission of the Collections Committee. The distribution of data to any third party by users is not permitted. Any third-party requesting access to the data obtained through a study of the WFD, by a previous user must submit a written request to said User as well as the Collections Committee. Each request will be addressed in an ad hoc manner by the Editor and the Collections Committee. On completion of the research work, the user undertakes to ensure that copies of all Data and research outputs or part thereof whether in his/her possession or not, is immediately handed over to the Editor. Users may not keep copies of the raw data/WFD, delete remove or in any way interfere with the University’s Intellectual Property without permission of the Collections Committee. The School reserves the right to use any of these Data in future research and teaching projects. Users will be allowed a moratorium period of maximum 2 (two) years to complete the research goals (i.e. publication, dissertation etc.). After which the Data will be made available for use for competing research projects or teaching. If the user is not able to complete the project within this time period, then the user must submit a progress report stipulating all limiting challenges in conjunction with a completion plan. This WFD may not in any shape or form be incorporated into any semi- or fully automated facial recognition/detection system. It may, however, be used to test the efficacy of non-commercial systems for face recognition and face detection. All Participants included in this database must be referred to by the commonly accepted terminology and they may not be discussed in any derogatory way. Under no circumstances may any Data not strictly belonging to consenting Participants of the study be used for research of any kind. Any passer-by or unintentionally recorded individual’s facial or other data may not be used for any purpose, including research. No image or video data may be published in any format or any platform if originating from the WFD, regardless of modifications. If a scientific publication results through unauthorised actions of the User and/or Third Party for which approval was not granted in writing by the Collections Committee, the relevant journal/publisher will be notified of this and the journal/publisher will be requested to remove the publication from their issues.
dc.format.medium native RAW
dc.format.medium .jpeg
dc.language.iso en en_ZA
dc.relation.uri smb://146.141.240.46/shared/nina
dc.rights Data Management Plan and Access Procedure for the Wits Face Database (WFD) Preamble The directions and procedures in this document outline the processes of curation and access for the Wits Face Database (“WFD”) belonging to the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (“University”). All procedures and directions contained in this document are in accordance with the “Conditions of Use of the WFD” document and its stipulated terms and conditions. The procedures and directions contained herein are based on the recommendations made specifically applicable to the School of Anatomical Sciences, resulting from a series of documents circulated regarding ethical approval processes for the Collections house within the School (viz a viz letter sent to the Faculty of Health Sciences on 27th February 2019 by the Assistant Dean of Research and Postgraduate Support, the circular dated 11 July 2019, updated on 22 July 2019 and finalised on 5th August 2019, National Health Act 2003, Wits Research Integrity policy and the Singapore Statement on Research Integrity (2010), DOH 2015 Ethics in Health Research Guidelines and School of Anatomical Sciences Collections Committee guidelines and policies). A detailed description of the WFD can be found at: database article DOI. To apply for access to the WFD please use the following link: Wits Libraries front-end link. Roles and Responsibilities The Editor and Co-developers of the database (N Bacci, J Davimes, M Steyn, and N Briers) have designed the database as well as captured and collated the data included in the WFD. In future, one or more of them will take on an advisory role to the Collection Committee in the application reviewing process, due to their knowledge of the database composition and privacy concerns. The raw data included in the database will be stored in a secure server in the Faculty of Health Sciences maintained and managed by Health Sciences Wits ICT (M Allen). While the server unit is under Faculty ICT, the storage hard disk drives were provided by the School of Anatomical Sciences. Future hard drives will be provided by the School as needed in the eventuality of technical failure or following expiry of the current warranty. The database metadata will be generated, attached to the actual data and curated by Wits Libraries Data Management (N Lewin) with support from the Editor and Co-developers where possible. Wits Libraries will also be involved in archiving backup copies of the database as well as functional copies for data retrieval when needed for use. The School of Anatomical Sciences Collections Committee will oversee access to the WFD and will review applications made to access the WFD to ensure best scientific and ethical practice. The above-mentioned responsibilities and roles will persist with the staff member holding the equivalent positions as the original personnel discussed. Transfer of the advisory role to the Collections Committee can be transferred by the database developers by written communication to someone deemed experienced and/or knowledgeable enough to perform said role. This data management plan will be reviewed on a biennial basis to consider any required modifications based on new technological, management, or financial developments. The review will be carried out by the Editor, Wits Libraries Data Management, Faculty of Health Sciences Wits ICT, School of Anatomical Sciences Head of School and the Collections Committee Chairperson. Type and Format of Data The database includes a series of facial photographs and CCTV recordings captured at the Braamfontein campus of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. Participants included students and staff who signed an informed consent for their participation. A total of 622 participants were photographed. Each participant had 10 photographs taken in different views and at two different distances (1.5m and 5m). The total number of unique photographs included in the database is 6220. All photographs were captured and stored both as native RAW and .jpeg formats. The effective duplication of photographs in these two formats results in 12440 images stored as part of the database. A total of 334 participants were also recorded using different CCTV cameras from the Wits Protection Services surveillance system. An approximate 30 seconds of footage was captured for each participant and extracted as .mp4 videos. The total approximate size of the database is 292 GB. Approximately 92 GB of the database consists of the CCTV footage with the remaining 200 GB being the photographs in all modes of capturing (5 views and two camera distances). Data Storage and Preservation The database in its entirety is composed of photographs (RAW and .jpeg files) and CCTV recordings (.mp4 files). These files are organised according to camera of origin and arranged by date of collection. All files will be stored as an encrypted backup on the Wits Faculty of Health Sciences (FHS) servers with no external access other than to extract additional copies solely by the Editor or the co-developers of the database. Additional copies extracted from the FHS ICT server will be transferred to the Wits Libraries Data Management who will store the database in its entirety in triplicate. The first copy will be retained as a second backup of the original data not to be accessed unless corruption or loss of data in the other copies occurs. The second copy will be a working copy where metadata relating to the individual files of the database will be associated to each file and catalogued accordingly. The third copy will be the one to be used to transfer for individual researcher access as needed following access approval has been granted. This copy will be altered to transfer the absolute minimum required for the completion of a research project and the images may be cropped, altered or edited to limit access and possible reuse as needed. All images to be transferred will be individually cryptographed using the individual researcher’s name affiliation and ORCID number to track any misuse and sharing of the data. Cryptography will be carried out using open access code in the python coding language with the aid of Wits FHS ICT and Jason Hemingway. Physical copies of the signed consent forms are kept under lock and key at the School of Anatomical Sciences. Scanned copies of these consent forms are stored as .pdf documents encrypted and on two password protected devices. They are stored separately from the database to prevent the possibility of association of personal details to the facial data of the participants. Practices for Access, Sharing and Appropriate Protection and Privacy The WFD is an open access resource for use in strictly non-commercial research. No viewing access or research may be permitted on the WFD unless authorised in writing to do so by the School of Anatomical Sciences Collections Committee and Head of School. Researchers wishing to obtain access to the WFD for research purposes must be affiliated to an academic institution for a minimum period of 6 (six) months prior to the application date. This affiliation, whether as a student or staff member of the institution, may require verification if deemed necessary by the Collections Committee. Applicants must use their institutional contact details (i.e. email address) for any communications regarding the WFD. These contact details must be verifiable as belonging or being affiliated to the institution. Applicants wishing to make use of the WFD must submit their request in writing to the Editor and the Collections Committee. The application must include: 1. a succinct research protocol, outlining the aim of the study, the procedures and processes to be employed in collecting data, and specifying the type and quantity of images and/or recordings required as well as how the results will be disseminated and how long data generated will be preserved; 2. a completed application form; 3. a signed copy of this Conditions of Use agreement with name, surname and detailed affiliations of all persons applying for use; 4. external applicants (from outside Wits University) must submit proof of ethical clearance approval from their own institution; 5. if the research is for the purposes of a post-graduate degree, evidence of approval of the project proposal from the student’s institution must be submitted The Collections Committee and Editor will review the application in its entirety and anonymously to determine the scientific and ethical merit of the intended research project in order to recommend granting the School’s blanket ethics waiver to the Head of School (HoS). The HoS is the legal custodian of all collections housed within the School, including the WFD, and is authorised to grant the ethics waiver. An application can be approved with no changes, approved subject to minor adjustments, requiring re-submission with major edits, or rejected. Successful applicants will be informed of the status of the application and will be provided with an ethics template for completion. The ethics template accompanied by a letter from the HoS indicating that he/she has approved the ethics waiver for the study, will be sent to the chair of the Human Research Ethics Committee (Medical) bi-annually for each project approved within the School that makes use of a collection, including the WFD. Once the Applicant has submitted the ethics template, they will be provided directions on how to access the component of the WFD relevant to their study. The component of the database to which access has been granted will be separated and prepared for transfer as an encrypted file over a secure connection. The encryption key will be disclosed separately and secretly to the User. Reuse, Distribution, and Derivatives All Intellectual Property rights in the WFD are owned by the University. The facial images and/or recordings of the Participants may not under any circumstances whatsoever be published in any form (e.g. published journal article, news article, thesis/dissertation, conference podium or poster presentation etc.). The WFD/part thereof: 1. may not be reproduced and/or publicized in any form or nature; 2. the images and/or recordings and the associated metadata, included in the WFD must not be reproduced without prior written consent of the University and the Collections Committee, which consent may be withheld in University’s sole discretion; 3. the distribution of any constituents of the WFD to any third party is prohibited; and 4. the distribution of any constituents of the WFD for commercial purposes is prohibited; Subject to compliance with the terms and conditions of the Conditions of Use document, users are, for the period of access approved by the Collections Committee granted a temporary, non-exclusive, revocable, non-transferable licence to access and to use the WFD/part thereof solely for non-commercial research purposes. Such license follows and abides by the terms and conditions of the WFD and may not be sub-licenced, assigned, pledged, encumbered or otherwise transferred by the User, voluntarily or involuntarily, by operation of law or otherwise, without University’s prior written consent, which consent may be withheld in University’s sole discretion, and any attempt to do so in violation of this Agreement will be without legal effect and void in terms of this Agreement. Users must comply with all applicable legislation including but not limited to the provisions of the Data Protection Legislation governing the collection, use and processing of Personal Information as defined in Protection of Personal Information Act 4 of 2013 (POPI). The data on the WFD is provided "as is", and the University assumes no responsibility for errors or omissions. The User assumes the entire risk associated with its use of these data. The University shall not be held liable for any use or misuse of the data described and/or contained herein. The User bears all responsibility in determining whether these data is fit for the User's intended use. Any screenshots, photographs, reproductions or any other information (hereafter referred to as “Data”) obtained from the original facial images and/or recordings belongs to the University. This includes, but is not limited to, data generated through the study of the WFD/part thereof. Data may not be made available on any Internet website, ftp-site, or any other similar public access point. Users must not process Personal Information/data obtained from the study of any part of/the whole WFD for any purpose other than in terms of the approved research project, without the express written permission of the Collections Committee. The distribution of data to any third party by users is not permitted. Any third-party requesting access to the data obtained through a study of the WFD, by a previous user must submit a written request to said User as well as the Collections Committee. Each request will be addressed in an ad hoc manner by the Editor and the Collections Committee. On completion of the research work, the user undertakes to ensure that copies of all Data and research outputs or part thereof whether in his/her possession or not, is immediately handed over to the Editor. Users may not keep copies of the raw data/WFD, delete remove or in any way interfere with the University’s Intellectual Property without permission of the Collections Committee. The School reserves the right to use any of these Data in future research and teaching projects. Users will be allowed a moratorium period of maximum 2 (two) years to complete the research goals (i.e. publication, dissertation etc.). After which the Data will be made available for use for competing research projects or teaching. If the user is not able to complete the project within this time period, then the user must submit a progress report stipulating all limiting challenges in conjunction with a completion plan. This WFD may not in any shape or form be incorporated into any semi- or fully automated facial recognition/detection system. It may, however, be used to test the efficacy of non-commercial systems for face recognition and face detection. All Participants included in this database must be referred to by the commonly accepted terminology and they may not be discussed in any derogatory way. Under no circumstances may any Data not strictly belonging to consenting Participants of the study be used for research of any kind. Any passer-by or unintentionally recorded individual’s facial or other data may not be used for any purpose, including research. No image or video data may be published in any format or any platform if originating from the WFD, regardless of modifications. If a scientific publication results through unauthorised actions of the User and/or Third Party for which approval was not granted in writing by the Collections Committee, the relevant journal/publisher will be notified of this and the journal/publisher will be requested to remove the publication from their issues. en_ZA
dc.subject CCTV en_ZA
dc.subject facial photographs en_ZA
dc.subject facial identification en_ZA
dc.subject facial comparison en_ZA
dc.subject morphological analysis en_ZA
dc.subject facial recognition. en_ZA
dc.subject Face -- Anatomy and Histology en_ZA
dc.subject Videorecording en_ZA
dc.subject Image analysis en_ZA
dc.subject Photo comparison en_ZA
dc.subject Face The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw. en_ZA
dc.subject MeSH Unique ID: D005145 en_ZA
dc.subject Photography
dc.subject Image Processing
dc.title Wits Face Database en_ZA
dc.title.alternative WFD en_ZA
dc.type Dataset en_ZA
ddi.cleanops Tamara Lottering
ddi.dataaccs The third copy will be the one to be used to transfer for individual researcher access as needed following access approval has been granted. This copy will be altered to transfer the absolute minimum required for the completion of a research project and the images may be cropped, altered or edited to limit access and possible reuse as needed. All images to be transferred will be individually cryptographed using the individual researcher’s name affiliation and ORCID number to track any misuse and sharing of the data. Cryptography will be carried out using open access code in the python coding language with the aid of Wits FHS ICT and Jason Hemingway.
ddi.datacollector Jesse Fredericks, Kiveshen Pillay, Rethabile Masiu, Sameerah Sallie, Daniel Munesamy, Laurette Joubert, Jordan Swiegers, Betty Mkabela, Johannes P. Meyer, Amy Spies, Natasha Loubser, Nicole Virgili, Dan-Joel Lukumbi, Tamara Lottering, Mathabatha Ntjie, Claudia Landsman, Raheema Dalika, Merete Goosen, Stephanie Souris, Rabelani Negota, Mahlatse Mahasha, Jessica Manavhela.
ddi.datatype A total of 622 participants were photographed. Each participant had 10 photographs taken in different views and at two different distances (1.5m and 5m). The total number of unique photographs included in the database is 6220. All photographs were captured and stored both as native RAW and .jpeg formats. The effective duplication of photographs in these two formats results in 12440 images stored as part of the database. A total of 334 participants were also recorded using different CCTV cameras from the Wits Protection Services surveillance system. An approximate 30 seconds of footage was captured for each participant and extracted as .mp4 videos. The total approximate size of the database is 292 GB. Approximately 92 GB of the database consists of the CCTV footage with the remaining 200 GB being the photographs in all modes of capturing (5 views and two camera distances).
ddi.fundag 10.13039/501100001321
ddi.universe students and staff of Braamfontein campus of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.
dataset.nrf.grant 11858
dataset.nrf.grant 106031
dataset.nrf.grant 10.13039/501100001321
dataset.other.grantNo CSUR160425163022
ddi.diststmt IRODS archiving backup copies of the database smb://146.141.240.46/shared/nina
dc.description.librarian NSLewin en_ZA
dc.citation.doi 10.17605/OSF.IO/WMA4C en_ZA
dc.funder National Research Foundation (South Africa ) en_ZA
dc.orcid.id 0000-0001-6858-7598 en_ZA
dc.orcid.id 0000-0001-9808-5249 en_ZA
dc.orcid.id 0000-0002-0215-9723 en_ZA
dc.orcid.id 0000-0002-8544-6049 en_ZA
dcterms.abstract Forensic facial comparison is a commonly used, yet under-evaluated method employed in the medicolegal context across the world. Testing the accuracy and reliability of facial comparison requires large scale controlled and matching facial image databases. Controlled yet actualistic facial databases are of high value to many fields of facial identification and recognition. Although a large number of databases are available, the majority if not all are strictly developed in order to better facial recognition and face detection algorithms through machine learning and with very limited if any measure of standardisation. This paper aims to review the available databases and describe the development of a high resolution standardised facial photograph and CCTV recording database of male Africans. The database is composed of a total of 6220 standardised and wildtype facial photographs of 622 matching individuals in five different views, as well as corresponding CCTV footage of 334 individuals, under different actualistic conditions. A detailed description of the composition and acquisition process of the database as well as its subdivisions and possible uses is provided. The challenges and limitations of developing this database are also highlighted, particularly with regard to obtaining CCTV video recordings and ethics around a database of faces. The application process to access the database is also described.
dcterms.accessRights 1. a succinct research protocol, outlining the aim of the study, the procedures and processes to be employed in collecting data, and specifying the type and quantity of images and/or recordings required as well as how the results will be disseminated and how long data generated will be preserved; 2. a completed application form; 3. a signed copy of this Conditions of Use agreement with name, surname and detailed affiliations of all persons applying for use; 4. external applicants (from outside Wits University) must submit proof of ethical clearance approval from their own institution; 5. if the research is for the purposes of a post-graduate degree, evidence of approval of the project proposal from the student’s institution must be submitted The Collections Committee and Editor will review the application in its entirety and anonymously to determine the scientific and ethical merit of the intended research project in order to recommend granting the School’s blanket ethics waiver to the Head of School (HoS). The HoS is the legal custodian of all collections housed within the School, including the WFD, and is authorised to grant the ethics waiver. An application can be approved with no changes, approved subject to minor adjustments, requiring re-submission with major edits, or rejected. Successful applicants will be informed of the status of the application and will be provided with an ethics template for completion. The ethics template accompanied by a letter from the HoS indicating that he/she has approved the ethics waiver for the study, will be sent to the chair of the Human Research Ethics Committee (Medical) bi-annually for each project approved within the School that makes use of a collection, including the WFD. Once the Applicant has submitted the ethics template, they will be provided directions on how to access the component of the WFD relevant to their study. The component of the database to which access has been granted will be separated and prepared for transfer as an encrypted file over a secure connection. The encryption key will be disclosed separately and secretly to the User.
dcterms.accrualMethod functional copies for data retrieval
dcterms.accrualPeriodicity This data management plan will be reviewed on a biennial basis to consider any required modifications based on new technological, management, or financial developments. The review will be carried out by the Editor, Wits Libraries Data Management, Faculty of Health Sciences Wits ICT, School of Anatomical Sciences Head of School and the Collections Committee Chairperson
dcterms.conformsTo https://data.crossref.org/reports/help/schema_doc/4.3.7/
dcterms.coverage 12440 images
dcterms.hasFormat native RAW .jpeg formats
dc.rights.holder School of Anatomical Sciences Collections Committee
dc.phd.title Data From: Development of an African database of high-resolution facial photographs and multimodal CCTV recordings for facial image comparison en_ZA
dc.description.additional Data type and instrumentation The database comprises a consistent face database with corresponding individuals across various photographic and video recording conditions. The data volume comprises 300 KB in native .jpeg and RAW format. The data was captured on CCTV cameras, servers, DVRs and computers are owned, maintained and calibrated by University of Witwatersrand. The camera are owned by the researchers are: 1 Canon 1300D 18MP DSLR camera (18-55 mm DC Canon lens) with the following settings: image sensor sensitivity (ISO) of 800, aperture F/9,shutter speed between 1/125 and 1/40, with a focal length of 55mm and daylight white balance. 2, Sony SLT A57 (18 – 250mm Sony Zoom Lens) with the following settings: image sensor sensitivity (ISO) of 200, aperture F/9, shutter speed between 1/125 and 1/40, focal length of 250mm and daylight white balance Wildtype : 5m of camera to face distance with clothing visible and mixed background. Standard photos participants had clothing covered, distance was 1.5m and a black backdrop was used, the objective to face distance was fixed at 1.5 m. captured at a 5 m distance. Data Populations sampling and locations. The data are a functional, actualistic Male African database of 6220 facial images that can be intended for facial comparison analysis Male and African descent characteristics were subjectively recruited focusing on facial characteristic based on forensic anthropological criteria. The data collection period spanned 25 of September 2018 and was completed on 18 of October 2019. The images were captured over progressive time periods in the day . The population universe that was sampled from is students from University of Witwatersrand present at that location. The geographical location is Braamfontein Campus of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. Data collection and cleaning Nicolas Bacci was the project manager. The raw data capture handled by Joshua Davimes CCTV data was extracted on the hard drive by Gideon Roux. Mark Allen worked on Data preservation. The student sample recruiters were trained by the project manager in forensic anthropology, most have in addition, postgraduate qualification relating to forensics and/or anatomy. The student recruiters were: Jesse Fredericks, Kiveshen Pillay, Rethabile Masiu, Sameerah Sallie, Daniel Munemy, Laurette Joubert, Jordan Swiegers, Betty Mkabela, Johannes P. Meyer, Amy Spies, Natasha Loubser, Nicole Virgili, Dan-Joel Lukumbi, Tamara Lottering, Mathabatha Ntjie, Claudia Landsman, Raheema Dalika, Merete Goosen, Stephanie Souris, Rabelani Negota, Mahlatse Mahasha, Jessica Manavhela. The photos were taken at three sites : Site A: Type outdoors CCTV camera attributions: installation height: 3100 mm Site B Type outdoors CCTV camera attributions: installation height:1700 mm Site C Type indoors analogue attributions: installation height:2500 mm The main variables in the dataset are a comparison between Standardised (ST) photographs and wildtype cameras in 5 views. The photographs subcatgories are five different views. a. Anterior frontal view b. Right 45-degree view c. Right lateral view d. Left 45-degree view e. Left lateral view Ownership and rights These are extensively outlined in the data management plan and conditions of use documentation. Data access is open to Bonafide researchers under ethical review for the protection of privacy and human subjects.
dc.faculty Health Sciences en_ZA
dc.faculty School of Anatomical Sciences
dc.school Anatomical Sciences en_ZA


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